Cases reported "Encephalitis, Viral"

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1/210. Adipsic hypernatremia in two patients with AIDS and cytomegalovirus encephalitis.

    In patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), hypoosmolality is frequently observed, whereas hypernatremia is distinctly rare. We report two patients with advanced AIDS and cytomegalovirus (CMV) encephalitis, who developed severe hypernatremia without any thirst sensation, that is, adipsic hypernatremia. Both developed severe hypernatremia of up to 164 and 162 mmol/L, with serum osmolalities of 358 and 344 mOsmol/kg while remaining alert and denying thirst. serum antidiuretic hormone (ADH) levels were 0.9 and 1.5 pg/mL, inappropriately low for the concomitant serum osmolalities. vital signs were stable. During hypernatremia, urine osmolalities were 327 and 340 mOsmol/kg, and urine Na levels were 56 and 119 mmol/L, respectively. Periventricular white matter lesions were seen on cerebral nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI) in case 1, but the pituitary appeared normal in both cases. survival after onset of hypernatremia was 6 and 4 weeks, respectively. autopsy in case 1 showed typical findings of CMV encephalitis but normal pituitary, confirming that infection with hiv or CMV most likely caused the dysfunction of the central osmostat.
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ranking = 1
keywords = virus
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2/210. Reactivation of herpes virus after surgery for epilepsy in a pediatric patient with mesial temporal sclerosis: case report.

    OBJECTIVE: This case report is presented to raise the awareness of the potential risk of reactivation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis after intracranial surgery. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: The case of an 8-year-old male patient who suffered a reactivation of HSV encephalitis after undergoing amygdalohippocampectomy for complex partial seizures is reported. This patient had previously contracted HSV 1 meningoencephalitis at the age of 16 months. Six years later, a left amygdalohippocampectomy was proposed after the development of intractable partial epilepsy associated with left mesial temporal lesions. During the postoperative period, the patient suffered severe clinical deterioration with partial status epilepticus, aphasia, and hyperthermia, which resolved after intensive antiepileptic treatment supported by acyclovir. CONCLUSION: We advise prophylactic pre-, peri-, and postoperative treatment with acyclovir for patients with known histories of HSV encephalitis who undergo intracranial procedures.
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ranking = 1
keywords = virus
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3/210. Subacute measles encephalitis in a young man immunosuppressed for ankylosing spondylitis.

    Subacute measles encephalitis occurred 1 month after measles onset in a 26-year-old hiv-negative man undergoing immunosuppressive treatment for ankylosing spondylitis. He had seizures, a decline in mental status, and progressive impairment of consciousness, with a fatal outcome. Despite severely deficient cellular immunity, the elevated antimeasles antibody titers and CSF findings indicated that humoral immunity was not impaired. Histologic, electron microscopic, and immunocytochemical studies revealed the typical intranuclear inclusions of paramyxovirus nucleocapsids, and measles virus antigen in neurons and oligodendrocytes.
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ranking = 4.4781549192352
keywords = measles virus, measles, virus
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4/210. Sequential MRI, SPECT and PET in respiratory syncytial virus encephalitis.

    We report on a 3-year-old girl with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) encephalitis manifested by disturbance of consciousness, conjugate eye deviation, anuria, truncal ataxia and intention tremor. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed hyperintense areas in the cerebellar cortex. No lesion was detected in the cerebral cortex, pons or spinal cord. The hyperintense areas in the cerebellar cortex diminished with recovery from the clinical manifestations and had resolved 2 months after onset. The MRI lesions in the cerebellum were considered to be due to oedema. SPECT and positron emission tomography (PET), performed 3 months after onset, disclosed areas of hypoperfusion and hypometabolism at the same sites. One year after onset, MRI showed mild atrophy of the cerebellum. Hypoperfusion on SPECT and hypometabolism on PET remained. neuroimaging showed that ataxia and tremor in this case were the result of cerebellitis. The patient has no neurological deficit except for mild truncal ataxia. This patient is a rare example of RSV encephalitis.
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ranking = 1
keywords = virus
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5/210. Atypical herpes simplex encephalitis presenting as operculum syndrome.

    This case report demonstrates the course of herpes simplex virus cerebritis in a patient aged 7 years 2 months who presented with non-specific symptoms followed by an epileptic attack. Subcortical, bilateral opercular and bilateral thalamic lesions were detected, but the temporal and inferior frontal lobes were spared. The patient developed anarthria, impairment of mastication and swallowing consistent with operculum syndrome. diagnosis was made by magnetic resonance imaging and elevation of oligoclonal antibodies specific to herpes simplex virus in cerebrospinal fluid after an unexpectedly negative polymerase chain reaction test.
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ranking = 0.4
keywords = virus
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6/210. Organ recovery from a donor with presumed viral encephalitis: a case report and review.

    This article reviews the pathophysiology of viral encephalitis, which is specifically infectious to transplant recipients, and discusses the potential infectivity of donors who had this virus. In addition, the case report demonstrates one center's experience in placing organs from a donor who was presumed--but not confirmed--to have viral encephalitis. When a patient with viral encephalitis is considered for organ donation, it is recommended that a brain biopsy be obtained prior to organ placement to identify the suspected virus or confirm the absence of any viral entity.
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ranking = 0.4
keywords = virus
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7/210. Outbreak of Hendra-like virus--malaysia and singapore, 1998-1999.

    During September 29, 1998-April 4, 1999, 229 cases of febrile encephalitis (111 [48%] fatal) were reported to the Malaysian Ministry of health (MOH). During March 13-19, 1999, nine cases of similar encephalitic illnesses (one fatal) and two cases of respiratory illness occurred among abattoir workers in singapore. Tissue culture isolation identified a previously unknown infectious agent from ill patients. This report summarizes the preliminary epidemiologic and laboratory investigations of these cases, which indicate that a previously unrecognized paramyxovirus related to, but distinct from, the Australian hendra virus is associated with this outbreak.
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ranking = 1.2
keywords = virus
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8/210. Operative treatment of tentorial herniation in herpes encephalitis.

    herpes simplex virus is the most common cause of acute viral encephalitis in children. Due to the variety of possible clinical manifestations the diagnosis is often overlooked in the early stages of the disease. Anti-viral therapy with acyclovir should be started whenever HSE is suspected. When there is further deterioration under virostatic therapy, a brain biopsy should be performed to verify the diagnosis. But even when the adequate medical therapy is established, massive brain edema and brain shift resulting in tentorial herniation can develop. Up to now the reported mortality of these patients is still around 30%. Here we report on a child with severe necrotizing herpes simplex encephalitis who developed severe tentorial herniation due to a right-sided mass lesion. The patient's status markedly improved after decompressive anterior temporal lobe resection. To our knowledge a similar case has not yet been reported in the literature. We suggest that anterior temporal lobe resection and decompressive craniotomy is of benefit in selected cases with tentorial herniation because both decompression and reduction of infectious material can be achieved.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = virus
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9/210. bk virus as the cause of meningoencephalitis, retinitis and nephritis in a patient with AIDS.

    BACKGROUND: The two widely spread human polyomaviruses, bk virus (BKV) and jc virus (JCV) establish latency in the urinary tract, and can be reactivated in AIDS. JCV might cause progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy, but although up to 60% of AIDS patients excrete BKV in the urine there have been few reports of BKV-related renal and/or neurological disease in AIDS. OBJECTIVE: To report on an AIDS patient with progressive renal and neurological symptoms involving the retina. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: Venhalsan, Soder Hospital, Stockholm, sweden. methods: The brain, eye tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, urine and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analysed by nested PCR for polyoma-virus dna. Macroscopical and microscopical examination were performed of the kidney and brain post mortem. Immunohistochemical stainings for the two BKV proteins, the VP1 and the agnoprotein, were performed on autopsy material and virus infected tissue culture cells. RESULTS: BKV could be demonstrated in the brain, cerebrospinal fluid, eye tissues, kidneys and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. CONCLUSION: During 6 years, approximately 400 cerebrospinal fluid samples from immunosuppressed individuals with neurological symptoms have been investigated by PCR for the presence of polyomaviruses. BKV dna has, so far, only been found in the case reported here. Although reports of BKV infections in the nervous system are rare, there is now evidence for its occurrence in immunocompromised patients and the diagnosis should be considered in such patients with neurological symptoms and signs of renal disease. The diagnosis is simple to verify and is important to establish.
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ranking = 2
keywords = virus
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10/210. Temporally-specific retrograde amnesia in two cases of discrete bilateral hippocampal pathology.

    The role of the hippocampus in retrograde amnesia remains controversial and poorly understood. Two cases are reported of discrete bilateral hippocampal damage, one of which was a rare case of limbic encephalitis secondary to the human herpes virus 6. Detailed memory testing showed marked anterograde memory impairment, but only mild, temporally-limited retrograde amnesia that covered a period of several years in both autobiographical and factual knowledge domains. The absence of extensive retrograde amnesia in these two cases points to a time-limited role for the hippocampus in the retrieval of retrograde memories, and suggests that entorhinal, perirhinal, parahippocampal, or neocortical areas of the temporal lobe may be more critical than the hippocampus proper for long-term retrograde memory functioning. Our findings offer general support to theories of memory consolidation that propose a gradual transfer of memory from hippocampal to neocortical dependency.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = virus
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