Cases reported "Encephalitis, Viral"

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1/12. Adipsic hypernatremia in two patients with AIDS and cytomegalovirus encephalitis.

    In patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), hypoosmolality is frequently observed, whereas hypernatremia is distinctly rare. We report two patients with advanced AIDS and cytomegalovirus (CMV) encephalitis, who developed severe hypernatremia without any thirst sensation, that is, adipsic hypernatremia. Both developed severe hypernatremia of up to 164 and 162 mmol/L, with serum osmolalities of 358 and 344 mOsmol/kg while remaining alert and denying thirst. serum antidiuretic hormone (ADH) levels were 0.9 and 1.5 pg/mL, inappropriately low for the concomitant serum osmolalities. vital signs were stable. During hypernatremia, urine osmolalities were 327 and 340 mOsmol/kg, and urine Na levels were 56 and 119 mmol/L, respectively. Periventricular white matter lesions were seen on cerebral nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI) in case 1, but the pituitary appeared normal in both cases. survival after onset of hypernatremia was 6 and 4 weeks, respectively. autopsy in case 1 showed typical findings of CMV encephalitis but normal pituitary, confirming that infection with hiv or CMV most likely caused the dysfunction of the central osmostat.
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2/12. Overlapping guillain-barre syndrome and Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis associated with anti-GQ1b IgG antibody after herpes simplex virus infection.

    herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a rare, antecedent infectious agent in guillain-barre syndrome (GBS). We report a patient with overlapping GBS and Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis (BBE). The patient had a vesicular lesion on her nose. Antecedent HSV type 1 (HSV-1) infection was confirmed by isolation of the virus and detection of the presence of serum anti-HSV-1 IgM antibody during the acute phase. Her serum IgG had high anti-GQ1b antibody titer. External ophthalmoplegia has been noted in 2 of 4 reported cases of HSV-associated GBS. Herpetic brainstem encephalitis cases of poor prognosis are known, but only 2 cases of benign brainstem encephalitis secondary to HSV infection, in which there was acute ophthalmoplegia and clinical features consistent with those of BBE have been reported.
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3/12. Genetic analysis of an influenza b virus isolated from a patient with encephalopathy in japan.

    An influenza b virus, B/Saga/S172/99 (SAG99), was isolated from the nasopharynx of a patient with encephalopathy/encephalitis in japan in 1999. To clarify the molecular characteristics of this virus, detailed analysis of the gene segments coding for the hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), nucleoprotein (NP), matrix protein (M) and non-structural protein (NS) was undertaken. All five genes of SAG99 showed high nucleotide and predicted amino acid similarities with those of recent non-encephalopathic strains isolated in the same epidemic season. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis revealed that all five gene segments of SAG99 analyzed in the present study were most similar to those of the recent Yamagata/16/88-like viruses. The hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins of SAG99 were each distinguished from those of recent epidemic strains by one characteristic amino acid substitution. These substitutions were not found in the previously reported encephalopathy/encephalitis-derived influenza B viruses, and we could not find any common characteristic amino acid changes in SAG99 and these viruses. Similarly, among the internal proteins studied, only the M2 protein of SAG99 was found to contain a single novel amino acid change when compared with other recent isolates. Thus, it was apparent that SAG99 contained very few amino acid differences when compared with other epidemic viruses. The association of recent B/Yamagata/16/88-like viruses with encephalitis/encephalopathy observed in the present study and previously suggest that these viruses may have a higher potential for causing neurological complications in certain individuals.
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4/12. Bilateral ophthalmic artery occlusion in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and central nervous system lymphoma.

    PURPOSE: Clinical course and autopsy findings in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus-1 immunodeficiency, central nervous system lymphoma, and bilateral, simultaneous ophthalmic artery occlusions. DESIGN: Observational case report. methods: Clinical examination, fundus photography, gross and microscopic pathologic study. RESULTS: Fundus photographs disclosed stasis in retinal arterioles, the absence of a cherry-red spot; internal carotid arteriography disclosed bilateral ophthalmic artery occlusions; postmortem histopathologic examination disclosed bilateral ophthalmic artery atherosclerosis, retinal ischemic necrosis, ischemic optic neuropathy, diffuse large-cell lymphoma of multiple areas of the central nervous system, cytomegalovirus encephalitis, atherosclerosis, and bronchopneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: A 47-year-old male with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, profound immunodeficiency, systemic hypertension, and central nervous system lymphoma, developed deep vein thrombosis, bilateral ophthalmic artery occlusions, and died of pneumonia 7 weeks after the onset of blindness. Postmortem study revealed bilateral ophthalmic artery hemorrhagic atherosclerosis, ischemic optic neuropathy, ischemic retinal necrosis, diffuse large-cell central nervous system lymphoma, cytomegalovirus encephalitis, pneumonitis, and systemic atherosclerosis.
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5/12. Complex intracellular inclusions in the brain of a child with a stealth virus encephalopathy.

    Unusual pigmented intracellular inclusions are commonly seen in cultures obtained from patients infected with stealth viruses. Some of these structures may potentially provide a source of chemical energy for the infected cells to help compensate for the apparent damage to the cells' mitochondria. They have accordingly been termed alternative cellular energy pigments (ACE pigments). In keeping with this suggestion, the present paper illustrates the diversity of extraneous materials present in vacuolated, mitochondria-damaged cells seen in the brain biopsy of a child with a stealth-virus-associated encephalopathy. Many of the intracellular inclusions show highly ordered structuring, while others have a more amorphous appearance. These structures may provide a target for energy-based therapeutic intervention in stealth-virus-infected patients.
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6/12. Coxsackie virus B 4 encephalitis in a 7 year old boy.

    BACKGROUND: Enteroviruse belongs to the family of picornaviruses. They can be devided in 4 groups: polioviruses (Typ 1-3) enteric cythopathogenic human orphan (ECHO)- viruses, unclassified enteroviruses 68-71 and coxsackie viruses. Coxsackie virus type B can cause pharyngitis, myalgia, myocarditis and meningitis as well as severe neonatal infections. CASE REPORT: We report a patient with coxsackie type B 4 encephalitis. A 7 year old boy had 2 episodes of mental dizziness and consciousness disturbance. Because of he presented a visus of 70 %, headaches and vomiting he was admitted to our hospital. In the cerebrospinal fluid a coxsackie virus type B 4 could be identified. With nonspecific therapy the boy recovered. CONCLUSION: We concluded that coxsackie virus B 4 caused acute encephalitis with ophthalmological and mental symptoms and good prognosis. Coxsackie virus B 4 should be considered in patients with encephalitis.
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7/12. Imaging findings in rabies.

    A 10 year old Vietnamese girl presented with clinical features of an acute encephalitic process. A cerebral angiogram performed to rule out vasculitis showed narrowing at the supraclinoid internal carotid and terminal basilar arteries. A diagnosis of rabies was established at autopsy. Although the major blood vessels and basal meninges were normal it was possible that transient arterial spasm induced by the viral infection was responsible for the angiographic appearance. Other imaging findings in our patient are described with a brief review of the literature. This is only the second case of rabies reported in australia. rabies is a rare disease in the Australian community. Recently one patient with atypical clinical presentation was confirmed to have the disease only at autopsy. In the clinical work-up, various radiological examinations were performed and a range of interesting features were encountered including an abnormal cerebral angiogram. The purpose of this paper is to report on these unusual features and to review those documented in the literature.
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8/12. An alternative elastase-mediated degradation of fibrinogen and fibrin observed in a patient with herpes simplex encephalitis and pneumonia.

    A 74-year-old female developed pneumonia following herpes simplex encephalitis. Her white blood cell counts reached 28,400/microliters, about 90% of which consisted of granulocytes. The polymorphonuclear (PMN) elastase/alpha 1-antitrypsin complex levels increased and reached the maximum of 5,019 ng/ml, indicating the release of a large amount of elastase derived from the granulocytes. The mechanism of PMN elastase release was most likely to be granulocyte destruction associated with phagocytosis. The cleavage of fibrinogen and fibrin by PMN elastase, independent of plasmin, was indicated by the presence of the fragments in immunoprecipitated plasma from the patient corresponding to elastase-induced FDP D and DD fragments and the absence of fragments corresponding to plasmin-induced FDP D and DD fragments on SDS-PAGE. These findings suggested that the large amount of PMN elastase released from the excessive numbers of granulocytes in this patient with herpes simplex encephalitis and pneumonia, induced the cleavage of fibrinogen and fibrin without the participation of plasmin.
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9/12. Large, virus-like sinuous tubules in the endoplasmic reticulum of human neurons: report from a case of encephalopathy and brief critical review.

    We report a case of a rapidly progressive, fatal non-inflammatory demyelinating disease, distinct from multiple sclerosis and lysosomal disorders, in a patient with progressive dementia. Electron microscopy of stereotactic brain biopsy samples revealed the presence in neurons of sinuous, double-walled cylindrical membranous structures within the cisterns of the endoplasmic reticulum. These structures were 75-80 nm in overall diameter, up to 1.5 mm long and had a 40- to 45-nm diameter core. The possibility that they might be viruses of the filoviridae or paramyxoviridae families was considered, but the inclusions differed in key morphological aspects from members of both virus families and there were no supporting clinical or pathological data. Neither was it possible to assign the structures to any other known virus family on the basis of their morphology. Such inclusions have been the subject of only three published reports over the past 20 years. Evidence suggests that they may be confined to human central nervous system neurons, but occur in unrelated disorders (Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, meningoencephalitis, low-pressure hydrocephalus, demyelination). The possibility that they are formed in certain neurons by an abnormal internal budding process, as a response to a variety of pathological insults, is considered most likely, although an infectious origin (such as an unrecognised virus with variable clinical effect) cannot be ruled out.
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10/12. Acute near-fatal parainfectious cerebellar swelling with favourable outcome.

    The clinical course, neuro-imaging features and neuropathologic findings in a child with para-infectious acute cerebellar swelling are described. Reversible transtentorial and transforaminal herniations occurred and required emergency posterior fossa decompression with external ventricular drainage. Neuropathologic examination of a cerebellar biopsy demonstrated a subacute pathogen-free cerebellitis. Following neurosurgical intervention and steroid therapy, symptoms and signs resolved and the patient is well 3 years later. Acute para-infectious cerebellar swelling is potentially fatal unless recognised and treated early in its evolution.
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