Cases reported "Encephalitis"

Filter by keywords:



Filtering documents. Please wait...

1/10. Naming impairments following recovery from herpes simplex encephalitis: category-specific?

    An apparently clear case of category-specific naming impairment selectively affecting animals was detected in a patient who had recovered from herpes simplex encephalitis. However, subsequent investigation demonstrated that these category-specific effects could be eliminated by controlling simultaneously for three factors in picture naming: word frequency, concept familiarity, and visual complexity. The results emphasize the importance of controlling for all factors pertinent to picture naming when attempting to demonstrate category specificity in picture naming. Further testing indicated that deficits were also apparent when naming to definition was required, and some impairment in the ability to answer questions about objects and living things was also noted. Theoretical implications of these data are considered.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = animal
(Clic here for more details about this article)

2/10. Fatal encephalitis caused by a bat-borne rabies-related virus. Clinical findings.

    The clinical findings are described in the first reported European case of fatal encephalitis of bat origin caused by a rabies-related virus. A bat zoologist developed the symptoms of rabies 51 days after his last exposure to a bat bite. The clinical disease of 23 days duration was a combination of the paralytic and 'furious' forms of rabies. Serial BAEP and EEG recordings, CT and MR scans of the brain, as well as CSF findings, demonstrated severe ascending destruction of the brain. An unusual progression from isolated brainstem death to cortical brain death occurred. Neuropathologically, the brain showed severe lytic changes. The presence of rabies-related virus antigens in brain smears was shown using a panel of fluorescent antibodies. The virus was inoculated into and isolated from suckling mice. The virus had a close resemblance to European bat rabies isolates, which belong to the group of rabies-related viruses. Of particular concern is whether the virus can spread from bats to terrestrial animals and whether the European type of bat rabies constitutes a danger to man.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = animal
(Clic here for more details about this article)

3/10. memory enhancement after physostigmine treatment in the amnesic syndrome.

    Central anticholinergic agents (eg, scopolamine) are known to produce transient memory deficits in human and animal subjects. Damage to the limbic system frequently results from herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) and produces a memory deficit. If this deficit is due to limbic cholinergic pathway destruction, it might improve with central cholinergic agonists (eg, physostigmine). In a doubleblind study over a three-week period, we compared memory performance on three days after 0.8-mg subcutaneous physostigmine therapy (three sessions) to baseline performance and that obtained in three randomly interspersed control sessions. Serial assessment of memory by the Selective Reminding Test showed reproducible enhancement of long-term storage and retrieval with physostigmine treatment. Performance after control injections did not exceed baseline levels. Our findings encourage the hypothesis that cholinergic mechanisms subserve memory and that their pharmacological potentiation might favorable influence some amnesic conditions.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = animal
(Clic here for more details about this article)

4/10. phaeohyphomycosis of brain: granulomatous encephalitis caused by Drechslera spicifera.

    Drechslera spicifera is a dematiaceous fungus which occurs widely in nature but only rarely has been implicated in animal and human infections. Previous infections have occurred in superficial and subcutaneous sites or were encountered in immunologically compromised hosts. This report documents a case of granulomatous encephalitis due to Drechslera spicifera in an immunologically competent woman with no known underlying disease, from whom the fungus was isolated. Animal pathogenicity studies in mice reproduced the histopathologic features, and the fungus was reisolated from the animals.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 2
keywords = animal
(Clic here for more details about this article)

5/10. Western equine encephalitis mimicking herpes simplex encephalitis.

    A patient with severe encephalitis had focal findings suggesting herpes simplex encephalitis. After brain biopsy and administration of vidarabine, the patient's condition improved but was ultimately diagnosed as a case of western equine encephalitis. Further complicating laboratory diagnosis, an endogenous murine coronavirus was isolated from newborn mice inoculated with the patient's brain biopsy tissue. This case illustrates the need for caution in attributing therapeutic responses to antiviral agents or in attributing human illness to viruses that are actually endogenous to animals and tissue culture used in diagnostic virology.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = animal
(Clic here for more details about this article)

6/10. Ventriculitis caused by klebsiella pneumoniae successfully treated with pefloxacin in a neonate.

    pefloxacin was applied to a newborn suffering from ventriculitis caused by klebsiella pneumoniae after failure of routine antibiotics. Treatment was successful. Blood and CSF levels were high, thus documenting good CSF penetration. In addition to this case report, a review of the literature regarding seven neonates with CNS infection treated with fluoroquinolones and from whom CSF levels were obtained, is presented. In conclusion, due to their excellent activity against gram-negative microorganisms, fluoroquinolones may be considered in the treatment of neonatal CNS infections if the pathogen is resistant to routinely used antibiotics. Only limited experience is available with fluoroquinolones in pediatric patients given their potential for cartilage toxicity in young animals.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = animal
(Clic here for more details about this article)

7/10. Are semantic systems separately represented in the brain? The case of living category impairment.

    Following herpes encephalitis, a patient showed impaired knowledge of animals, fruits and vegetables, flowers and food (so called living things categories), whatever the modality in which stimuli were presented and responses were given. A series of experiments showed that the deficit specifically affected the ability to retrieve the perceptual features of the living stimuli defining their shape, while knowledge of their functional-encyclopedic properties was preserved. The patient had no problems with man-made objects, except when the recall of their colour, or the identification of their sound was requested. It is argued that the retrieval of the perceptual features was potentially disrupted for every type of category, but that the block was compensated for man-made objects, because the close correspondence between shape and function that characterises them provided an alternative route to access their structured form representations. On this account, the selective deficit for living categories seems contingent on the interaction between an overall cognitive impairment--the deficit in retrieving perceptual features--and some intrinsic properties of the stimulus--the factors that have modelled its form--and cannot be taken as evidence that semantic systems are allotted to separate cerebral areas.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = animal
(Clic here for more details about this article)

8/10. Simple formed hallucinations confined to the area of a specific visual field defect.

    Thirteen patients with transient or permanent homonymous visual field defects experienced formed hallucinations localized to the affected part of the visual field. The lesion was occipital in 8 instances (infarction 7, porencephalic cyst 1), parietooccipital in 3 (infarction 2, angioma 1) and probably parietal in 2 (epilepsy 1, encephalitis 1). The disorder involved the right hemisphere in 9 cases, the left hemisphere in 3 cases and both hemispheres sequentially in one patient. hallucinations were accompanied by palinopsia in 2 cases, metamorphopsia in one case and constriction of one pupil in another case. This particular type of hallucination is considered as an irritative phenomenon of the visual association cortex which can be symptomatic of a parieto-occipital lesion and does not necessarily implicate the temporal lobes. Distinctive features about the visions were that they consisted of people, animals or objects. There was no auditory accompaniment and any action that took place was stereotyped and did not tell a story. In most cases, the hallucinations were not clearly related to any visual memory. It is suggested that the visual association cortex amy be responsible for the organization of visual percepts into broad categories of which people, animals and objects are representative. The occurrence of such hallucinations with a visual field defect suggests that the cells of the association cortex are more likely to discharge spontaneously once they are deprived of their normal afferent inflow from the calcarine cortex.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 2
keywords = animal
(Clic here for more details about this article)

9/10. Category-specific form-knowledge deficit in a patient with herpes simplex virus encephalitis.

    In-depth case study of a herpes simplex virus encephalitis patient who presents with a relatively clear knowledge disorder and anterograde amnesia in the absence of any other major cognitive deficit. The main neuropsychological feature is a category-specific impairment restricted to living things. The patient misnamed pictures of animals and vegetables, could not accurately draw animals from memory or verbally describe their visual appearance, and was not accurate in sorting pictures of real animals from pictures of unreal animals; conversely, in the same tasks her performance with artifactual objects was either errorless or superior to that with animals. We interpret the patient's category-specific deficit as due to a selective disturbance within the structural description system, rather than a deficit in low-level visual processing or semantic memory. From this case study and a review of other reported cases we claim that such deficit of form-knowledge is a consequence of the extensive lesions that affect bilaterally the inferior parts of the temporal lobes. The patient here described thus offers further empirical evidence for the crucial role of the inferotemporal cortex in processing visual knowledge about concepts.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 5
keywords = animal
(Clic here for more details about this article)

10/10. Post-infectious encephalitis with anti-galactocerebroside antibody subsequent to mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.

    Galactocerebroside (Gc) is a major component of myelin in both the peripheral and central nervous systems. Although it is regarded as an important glycolipid hapten of myelin in rabbit experimental allergic neuritis (EAN), its role in human demyelinating diseases is not known. We studied three post-infectious encephalitis (PIE) patients related to mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. All three of three patients with encephalitis and M. pneumoniae infection were positive for Gc antibodies (100%), while 25% of 32 M. pneumoniae-infected patients without neurological disease were positive, and 3.8% of 52 healthy controls. This indicates anti-Gc antibody is induced by M. pneumoniae infection. One of the PIE patients, who had extraordinary high titer antibody to Gc, showed an extensive, diffuse white matter demyelination and poor recovery. Since circulating anti-Gc antibody induces central nervous system demyelination in animals with elevated antibody titers and disruption of the blood-brain barrier, anti-Gc antibody may have an important function in the increased demyelination in PIE patients after M. pneumoniae infection.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = animal
(Clic here for more details about this article)
| Next ->


Leave a message about 'Encephalitis'


We do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Click here for the full disclaimer.