Cases reported "Encephalitis"

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1/41. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy after autologous bone marrow transplantation and alpha-interferon immunotherapy.

    A patient with a stage IV mantle cell lymphoma (according to the REAL classification) was treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation. One year later while on alpha-interferon immunotherapy she suffered from progressive loss of short-term memory and reported difficulties in recognizing objects. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a vast ring-enhancing lesion of the left postcentral parietal area. Serial stereotactic biopsies disclosed progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy without JC-virus in the cerebrospinal fluid. Therapy with subcutaneous interleukin-2 (IL-2) every other day and intrathecal cytarabine once a week was started. After 4 weeks the patient refused further treatment. Nevertheless her condition improved over the next 8 months and MRI scans showed a marked improvement in the lesions.
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keywords = bone
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2/41. Idiopathic pinealitis. Case report.

    This 63-year-old man presented with complaints of "having a feeling of falling backward" over a 3-month period. Results of his general physical examination, laboratory studies, and neurological examination were unremarkable. A magnetic resonance image revealed a 1.8 x 1.4 x 1.2-cm enhancing mass in the posterior third ventricle just above the corpora quadrigemina. The pineal gland was found to be diffusely enlarged at operation and separable from the posterior thalamus and was totally resected. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course but continues to be somewhat confused. The lesion consisted of a remarkable chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate permeating the pineal lobules and was composed of T and B lymphocytes, macrophages, eosinophils, and mast cells. Immunoperoxidase studies did not demonstrate langerhans cells, and a search for microorganisms was unrevealing. There was no evidence of neoplasia; results of immunostaining for germ cell markers and other tumor-associated antigens were negative.
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ranking = 202.58734222222
keywords = macrophage
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3/41. mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation patients.

    Bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients are prone to bacterial, viral and fungal infections. mycobacterium tuberculosis infection can occur in these patients, but the incidence is lower than that of other infections. This report describes four patients with mycobacterium tuberculosis infection identified from 641 adult patients who received a BMT over a 12-year period (prevalence 0.6%). The pre-transplant diagnosis was AML in two patients and CML in the other two. Pre-transplant conditioning consisted of BU/CY in three patients and CY/TBI in one. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was MTX/CsA in three patients and T cell depletion of the graft in one patient. Sites of infection were lung (two), spine (one) and central nervous system (one). Onset of infection ranged from 120 days to 20 months post BMT. Two patients had co-existing CMV infection. One patient had graft failure. The two patients who received anti-tuberculous (TB) therapy recovered from the infection. Although the incidence of tuberculosis in BMT patients is not as high as in patients with solid organ transplants, late diagnosis due to the slow growth of the bacterium can lead to delay in instituting anti-TB therapy. A high index of suspicion should be maintained, particularly in endemic areas.
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4/41. [11C](R)-PK11195 positron emission tomography imaging of activated microglia in vivo in Rasmussen's encephalitis.

    This study was designed to explore the feasibility of PET using [11C](R)-PK11195 as an in vivo marker of activated microglia/brain macrophages for the assessment of neuroinflammation in Rasmussen's encephalitis (RE). [11C](R)-PK11195 PET was carried out in four normal subjects, two patients with histologically confirmed RE, and three patients with clinically stable hippocampal sclerosis and low seizure frequency. Binding potential maps showing specific binding of [11C](R)-PK11195 were generated for each subject. Regional binding potential values were calculated for anatomically defined regions of interest after coregistration to and spatial transformation into the subjects' own MRI. In one patient with RE who underwent hemispherectomy, the resected, paraffin-embedded brain tissue was stained with an antibody (CR3/43) that labels activated human microglia. Whereas specific binding of [11C](R)-PK11195 in clinically stable hippocampal sclerosis was similar to that in normal brain, patients with RE showed a focal and diffuse increase in binding throughout the affected hemisphere. In RE, [11C](R)-PK11195 PET can reveal in vivo the characteristic, unilateral pattern known from postmortem neuropathologic study. PET imaging of activated microglia/brain macrophages offers a tool for investigation of a range of brain diseases where neuroinflammation is a component and in which conventional MRI does not unequivocally indicate an inflammatory tissue reaction. [11C](R)-PK11195 PET may help in the choice of appropriate biopsy sites and, further, may allow assessment of the efficacy of antiinflammatory disease-modifying treatment.
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ranking = 405.17468444444
keywords = macrophage
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5/41. Heterotopic ossification in childhood and adolescence.

    Heterotopic ossification, or myositis ossificans, denotes true bone in an abnormal place. The pathogenic mechanism is still unclear. A total of 643 patients (mean age, 9.1 years) admitted for neuropediatric rehabilitation were analyzed retrospectively with respect to the existence of neurogenic heterotopic ossification. The purpose of this study was to obtain information about incidence, etiology, clinical aspect, and consequences for diagnosis and therapy of this condition in childhood and adolescence. Heterotopic ossification was diagnosed in 32 patients (mean age, 14.8 years) with average time of onset of 4 months after traumatic brain injury, near drowning, strangulation, cerebral hemorrhage, hydrocephalus, or spinal cord injury. The sex ratio was not significant. In contrast to what has been found in adult studies, serum alkaline phosphatase was not elevated during heterotopic ossification formation. A persistent vegetative state for longer than 30 days proved to be a significant risk factor for heterotopic ossification. The incidence of neurogenic heterotopic ossification in children seems to be lower than in adults. A genetic predisposition to heterotopic ossification is suspected but not proven. As a prophylactic regimen against heterotopic ossification we use salicylates for those patients in a coma or persistent vegetative state with warm and painful swelling of a joint and consider continuous intrathecal baclofen infusion and botulinum toxin injection for those patients with severe spasticity. We prefer to wait at least 1 year after trauma before excision of heterotopic ossification.
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6/41. Rolandic encephalopathy and epilepsia partialis continua following bone marrow transplant.

    epilepsia partialis continua (EPC) is a condition defined by prolonged focal myoclonus. Often resistant to therapy, EPC in children is frequently present in Rasmussen encephalitis, a form of chronic encephalitis of uncertain etiology. We discuss a child who developed bilateral EPC 5 months after a bone marrow transplant. neuroimaging studies showed signal abnormalities on both sensory-motor areas. An extensive search failed to reveal the etiology of the disorder, but treatment with a broad-spectrum anti-viral agent was associated with resolution of the process. An unidentified infectious agent may be responsible for an encephalitis of the motor strip in immunosuppressed patients.
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keywords = bone
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7/41. Successful bone marrow transplantation from an unrelated donor in a patient with adult T cell leukemia.

    We report a 51-year-old male with adult T cell leukemia (ATL) who received a BMT from an HLA-identical unrelated donor. The ATL proved refractory to chemotherapy, and he underwent BMT conditioned with CY/TBI. Complications of encephalitis of unknown origin were successfully treated with steroid therapy and the patient has been in CR for 16 months after BMT. Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 proviral DNA loads were reduced to undetectable levels in PBMC sampled 12 months after BMT. This encouraging result suggests that BMT from an unrelated donor should be considered for ATL even if the disease is refractory to chemotherapy.
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keywords = bone
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8/41. Rasmussen encephalitis associated with Parry-Romberg syndrome.

    Parry-Romberg syndrome is a rare disorder associated with unilateral facial atrophy involving skin, subcutaneous tissue, skeletal muscle, and bone. Occasionally, there is CNS involvement with epilepsy being the most common CNS manifestation. The authors report a child with Parry-Romberg syndrome with a course strongly suggestive of Rasmussen encephalitis. The boy underwent hemispherectomy, and pathology showed the typical findings of Rasmussen encephalitis, suggesting that these two conditions may share common etiologic factors.
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keywords = bone
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9/41. Varicella-zoster virus encephalitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: report of four cases.

    Four patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, a 27-year-old female intravenous drug abuser and three males (two drug addicts aged 27 and 33 years and a 40-year-old homosexual) presented with a rapidly progressive encephalopathy. Two had generalized varicella-zoster virus skin infection, one had had a regressive thoracic zoster rash 7 months previously and one had no history of cutaneous eruption. Neuropathological examination revealed, in each case, multifocal necrotic changes with numerous, intranuclear Cowdry type A inclusion bodies in glial cells, endothelial cells, macrophages and neurons, within and around the lesions. These inclusion bodies were stained positively for varicella-zoster virus by immunocytochemistry and contained herpes virus nucleocapsids by electron microscopy. molecular biology using the polymerase-chain-reaction method demonstrated viral genome. In one case, zoster-induced non-inflammatory vasculopathy involved medium sized leptomeningeal vessels and was associated with circumscribed areas of cortico-subcortical infarction. In another case, varicella-zoster virus encephalitis was associated with human immunodeficiency virus encephalitis and a secondary cerebral lymphoma. Multinucleated giant cells expressing human immunodeficiency virus proteins in their cytoplasm, were found in the lymphomatous deposits and in the varicella-zoster virus necrotic lesions. In these latter lesions, Cowdry type A inclusion bodies could be seen in the nuclei of some multinucleated giant cells confirming previous observations of MGCs co-infected by hiv and CMV, and supporting the hypothesis that dna viruses interact with hiv, thus increasing its effect.
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ranking = 202.58734222222
keywords = macrophage
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10/41. encephalitis owing to human herpesvirus-6 after cardiac transplant.

    Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6), a beta herpesvirus closely related to cytomegalovirus (CMV), infects the majority of the population in childhood. Human herpesvirus-6 can be reactivated in the immunosuppressed patient. After bone marrow and orthotopic liver transplant, it has been linked to various clinical syndromes, including undifferentiated febrile illness, encephalitis, pneumonitis and bone marrow suppression. To date its infectious role after orthotopic heart transplant has not been well documented. We present the case of a 32-year-old cardiac transplant recipient who initially presented 8 weeks after his transplant with high fever and headache. He developed increasing confusion, pulmonary infiltrates and neutropenia. cytomegalovirus viral loads were negative. polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of blood and cerebrospinal fluid detected HHV-6 DNA, consistent with HHV-6-related encephalitis, pneumonitis and bone marrow suppression. He was treated with foscarnet with gradual improvement in clinical status. We review the literature on the significance of this virus post cardiac transplant.
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