Cases reported "Encephalitis"

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1/285. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy after autologous bone marrow transplantation and alpha-interferon immunotherapy.

    A patient with a stage IV mantle cell lymphoma (according to the REAL classification) was treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation. One year later while on alpha-interferon immunotherapy she suffered from progressive loss of short-term memory and reported difficulties in recognizing objects. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a vast ring-enhancing lesion of the left postcentral parietal area. Serial stereotactic biopsies disclosed progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy without JC-virus in the cerebrospinal fluid. Therapy with subcutaneous interleukin-2 (IL-2) every other day and intrathecal cytarabine once a week was started. After 4 weeks the patient refused further treatment. Nevertheless her condition improved over the next 8 months and MRI scans showed a marked improvement in the lesions.
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ranking = 1
keywords = virus
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2/285. Acute measles encephalitis of the delayed type.

    An acute measles encephalitis with epilepsia partialis continua occurred three months after measles in a previously healthy child with no detectable immunological defect. Levels of measles antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid were high, and tubular inclusions of the type seen in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis were found in nerve cell nuclei. A communicating high-pressure hydrocephalus developed in the later stage of the disease. This case demonstrates that measles encephalitis of the delayed type should systematically be considered in children with acute encephalitis.
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ranking = 72.150251441959
keywords = measles
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3/285. plasma exchange in Rasmussen's encephalitis.

    The authors observed a 4-year-old girl who has Rasmussen's encephalitis. She started with frequent localized and generalized seizures. Standard antiepileptic treatment was almost ineffective. The frequency of the generalized seizures decreased, but the myoclonic jerks of the left part of the body persisted. An EEG showed partial status epilepticus. The results of the CT scan were normal. antibodies to viruses were absent from the blood and cerebrospinal fluid. An MR scan showed a T2-weighted hypersignal zone in the right frontal region. Intravenous bolus injections of corticosteroids and drips of immunoglobulins were inefficient, and we started plasma exchanges which have continued for 9 months. The clinical state stabilized, and the images on the MR scan improved, but the results of the EEG did not improve. The authors discuss the effect of the plasma exchange, the use of which is questionable in this disease.
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ranking = 1
keywords = virus
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4/285. rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure associated with influenza virus type A.

    Two patients with rhabdomyolysis-induced acute renal failure due to influenza a virus infection are presented. Both had influenza symptoms, with high fever and severe muscular pain leading to walking problems. In addition, they were dehydrated due to vomiting and diarrhoea. Both had evidence of an ongoing influenza infection according to serological tests. Muscle injury due to the viral infection gave rise to rhabdomyolysis with efflux of myoglobin from the muscles, causing renal failure. In conclusion, influenza a virus infection can cause rhabdomyolysis accompanied by reversible acute renal failure.
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ranking = 6
keywords = virus
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5/285. cytomegalovirus encephalitis: diagnosis with clinical approach, EEG and PCR techniques.

    cytomegalovirus (CMV) encephalitis is particularly evident in immunodepressed patients. Often diagnosis is difficult and time-consuming because of the complex basic clinical picture of these patients. We describe the diagnostic steps taken in a case of cytomegalovirus encephalitis affecting an elderly patient, classified as immunodepressed and deceased on the thirty-fifth day of hospitalisation in the intensive care unit due to acute myocardial infarction. Treatment with ganciclovir, 30 mg/kg per day, begun at the time of diagnosis, appears to have had a positive effect on the neurologic symptoms.
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ranking = 6
keywords = virus
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6/285. Unusual encephalitic illnesses in a child with acute leukaemia in remission: possible role of measles virus and toxoplasma gondii.

    We report a girl who developed an encephalitic illness with visual loss after two years treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. The visual loss was found to be due to bilateral macular degeneration. She later developed radiological evidence of intracranial calcification and temporal lobe epilepsy. A second episode of encephalitis occurred when she had been off all antileukaemic treatment for three years and this left her with a right hemiparesis. Investigation suggested involvement with both measles virus and toxoplasma gondii as a cause for these illnesses.
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ranking = 488.0369467909
keywords = measles virus, measles, virus
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7/285. Toxoplasmic encephalitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome--four case reports.

    Four patients, all males aged 40-64 years, presented with toxoplasmic encephalitis associated with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection manifesting as nonspecific neurological deficits such as epilepsy or hemiparesis. magnetic resonance imaging showed single or multiple lesions with ring enhancement, mimicking metastatic brain tumor or brain abscess. Marked eosinophilia was noted in three patients. Two patients who received anti-toxoplasma chemotherapy in the early stage had a good outcome. However, the other two patients suffered rapid neurological deterioration and needed decompressive surgery, resulting in a poor outcome. toxoplasma diffusely infects the whole central nervous system from the early stage. The outcome for patients who needed emergency surgery was poor. Therefore, this rare but increasingly common infectious disease must be considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient with neuroimaging findings similar to those of metastatic tumor or brain abscess. Appropriate chemotherapy should be started immediately after hiv-positive reaction is identified in patients with single or multiple mass lesions with ring enhancement.
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ranking = 1
keywords = virus
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8/285. Influenza rna not detected in archival brain tissues from acute encephalitis lethargica cases or in postencephalitic Parkinson cases.

    Encephalitis lethargica (EL) was a mysterious epidemic. temporally associated with the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic. Numerous symptoms characterized this disease, including headache, diplopia, fever, fatal coma, delirium, oculogyric crisis, lethargy, catatonia, and psychiatric symptoms. Many patients who initially recovered subsequently developed profound, chronic parkinsonism. The etiologic association of influenza with EL is controversial. Five acute EL autopsies and more than 70 postencephalitic parkinsonian autopsies were available in the Armed Forces Institute of pathology (AFIP) tissue repository. Two of these 5 acute EL cases had histopathologic changes consistent with that diagnosis. The remaining 3 cases were classified as possible acute EL cases as the autopsy material was insufficient for detailed histopathologic examination. rna lysates were prepared from 29 CNS autopsy tissue blocks from the 5 acute cases and 9 lysates from blocks containing substantia nigra from 2 postencephalitic cases. rna recovery was assessed by amplification of beta-2-microglobulin mRNA and 65% of the tissue blocks contained amplifiable rna. reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for influenza matrix and nucleoprotein genes was negative in all cases. Thus, it is unlikely that the 1918 influenza virus was neurotropic and directly responsible for the outbreak of EL.
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ranking = 1
keywords = virus
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9/285. herpes simplex virus encephalitis simulating a frontoparietal convexity neoplasm.

    The unusual occurrence of a single, cell circumscribed encephalitis due to herpes simplex virus in the frontoparietal convexity is described and served to underline the importance of considering this pathology in the event of a rapidly expanding lesion presenting in any portion of the brain. The valuable, but limited, usefulness of brain scanning and cerebral angiography in making this diagnosis is discussed. Neurosurgical intervention and brain biopsy are required to make the definitive diagnosis.
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ranking = 5
keywords = virus
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10/285. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a child with hyperimmunoglobulin E recurrent infection syndrome and review of the literature.

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a fatal demyelinating disease due to infection with polyomavirus JC (JCV). PML occurs almost exclusively in immunocompromised patients, and although it has increased markedly in relation to AIDS, remains exceptional in children. We present the case of an immunocompromised child with hyperimmunoglobulin E recurrent infection syndrome (HIES) and pathologically-proven PML. HIES is a rare congenital immunodeficiency that to our knowledge has never before been reported in association with neurological complications. Following a recurrence of bronchopneumonia, the child's motor and cognitive functions deteriorated progressively in parallel with alterations on cerebral MRI. The neurological onset coincided with lymphocyte subset changes. PCR for JCV dna did not detect the virus in CSF, and brain biopsy was required to secure the diagnosis. Antiviral treatment with cidofovir produced no benefit. autopsy revealed the typical neuropathological findings of PML which were associated with inflammatory eosinophilic infiltrate (a marker of HIES). In accordance with the few pediatric PML cases reported and here reviewed, the child died five months after neurological onset.
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ranking = 2
keywords = virus
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