Cases reported "Encephalocele"

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1/147. Craniofacial correction of giant frontoethmoidal encephalomeningocele.

    The surgical treatment of a very large anterior encephalocele in an infant is presented. Because of the large size of the encephalocele, a combined transfacial-transcranial approach was used for correction of the associated intracranial, cranioorbitonasal bone, and facial skin deformities.
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2/147. prenatal diagnosis of Meckel syndrome: a case report.

    OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the major sonographic findings associated with Meckel syndrome and to emphasize the importance of prenatal sonography in helping to establish the correct diagnosis. SUBJECTS: Two fetuses with prenatal diagnosis of Meckel syndrome were sonographically evaluated. RESULTS: Both fetuses were demonstrated to have evidence of renal cystic dysplasia, occipital cephalocele and postaxial polydactyly. One case was diagnosed at 16 weeks of gestation whereas the other was detected at 36 weeks. Of interest, the first case had only unilateral renal cystic dysplasia and contralateral renal agenesis and mild degree of oligohydramnios. The other related anomalies which were not detected prenatally included cerebellar hypoplasia in case 1 and micrognathia in case 2. CONCLUSION: The main sonographic findings included renal cystic dysplasia, occipital cephalocele and postaxial polydactyly.
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keywords = nose
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3/147. New syndrome of growth and mental retardation, structural anomalies of the central nervous system, and first branchial arch, anophthalmia, heminasal a/hypoplasia, and atypical clefting: report on four Brazilian patients.

    We report on four unrelated Brazilian patients with growth and mental retardation, structural anomalies of the central nervous system (CNS), mainly callosal agenesis, prominent forehead, facial asymmetry, anophthalmia, heminasal a/hypoplasia, preauricular skin tags, structural anomalies of the external ears, and atypical clefting. This combination of anomalies is unique and, to our knowledge, is a previously undescribed syndrome of unknown etiology, although one of the patients was born to a consanguineous couple, suggesting the possibility of autosomal recessive inheritance. Clinical, genetic, and differential diagnosis aspects are discussed.
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4/147. Intrasphenoidal encephalocele and spontaneous CSF rhinorrhoea.

    Intrasphenoidal encephalocele is a rare clinical entity. In the international literature only 16 cases have been reported up today, with female predominance. Clinically they manifest at middle and advanced ages (40-67 years), when spontaneous CSF rhinorrhoea or recurrent meningitis occurs. We present our case, a 46 years old female, who had CSF rhinorrhoea from the right vestibule for 10 months. The diagnosis was based on the history and the high-resolution brain and skull base CT-scanning in conjunction with opaque fluid injection in the subarachnoidal space through a lumbar puncture. She was successfully treated with an operation, through an endonasal trans-ethmoid microendoscopic approach, using the Draf and Stammberger technique. We discuss the pathogenesis of the intrasphenoidal encephalocele, the existence of small occult defects in the skull base, which cause, at the middle and advanced ages, CSF fistula with spontaneous CSF rhinorrhoea and/or recurrent meningitis. Finally we emphasize the advantages of the endonasal surgical approach for the treatment of this condition.
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5/147. A rare case of upper airway obstruction in an infant caused by basal encephalocele complicating facial midline deformity.

    A four-month-old male infant with basal encephalocele of the transsphenoidal type presented with upper airway obstruction and facial midline deformity, including cleft lip, cleft palate, hypertelorism and exophthalmos. Basal encephalocele is a rare disease, and usually not detectable from the outside. In this case, initially the cause of an upper airway obstruction was considered to be posterior rhinostenosis, and posterior rhinoplasty with inferior nasal conchectomy was scheduled. However, in preoperative examination, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a bony defect in the sphenoidal bone and a cystic mass in communication with cerebrospinal fluid, herniating into the nasal cavity through the bony defect. The mass was diagnosed as a transsphenoidal encephalocele, the scheduled operation cancelled, and tracheostomy performed for airway management. The possibility of basal encephalocele should be considered in the case of upper airway obstruction with facial midline deformity.
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keywords = nasal, nose
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6/147. Transsphenoidal cephaloceles in adults. A report of two cases and review of the literature.

    Transsphenoidal cephalocele rarely occurs in adults. We describe two adult cases with transsphenoidal cephaloceles. The first case was a 53-year-old female who presented with spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated a transsphenoidal meningocele. Surgical repair was attempted via the transsphenoidal route. Rhinorrhea recurred at one month and also two years later. Transsphenoidal surgical repairs were repeated. There has been no evidence of CSF leakage in the four years of follow-up after the last surgery. Transsphenoidal repair seems to be the most suitable approach in this case. The second case was a 26-year-old female with secondary amenorrhea, diabetes insipidus, bitemporal hemianopsia, and see-saw nystagmus. MR imaging demonstrated a transsphenoidal encephalocele with the optic chiasma and infundibular recesses descending into the meningocele and an agenesis of the corpus callosum. The first operation was performed via the transnasal route and the second by sublabial transmaxillary transsphenoidal approach six months later. Postoperative MR imaging revealed reduction of the encephalocele. There was neither worsening nor noticeable improvement in the neurological or endocrinological function. However, in this type, complete repair is often impossible, and non-radical surgery such as transsphenoidal repair may be indicated as most suitable. They should be selected with careful assessment referring to MR findings and clinical symptoms and signs.
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7/147. Chiari malformation and sleep-disordered breathing: a review of diagnostic and management issues.

    Chiari Malformation (CM) encompasses several patterns of congenital or acquired cerebellar herniation through the foramen magnum. This may result in brain-stem compression that impacts control of breathing and is associated with obstructive and central apneas. A high clinical suspicion for sleep-disordered breathing is needed in the care of such patients after as well as before corrective surgery. To introduce a review of CM with a focus on the relevance to sleep medicine, we present a case of a 13-year-old female who was diagnosed with CM Type 1 in the course of an evaluation of symptomatic central sleep apnea. After initial improvement following surgery there was recurrence of brain-stem compression. The only clinical expression of which was polysomnographically evident recurrence of sleep apnea.
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keywords = nose
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8/147. pregnancy in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis: report of five cases in three women.

    Five cases of pregnancy occurring in three women with previously diagnosed Wegener's granulomatosis are described. The disease was diffuse in one case and localised in the other. Initial treatment consisted of a combination of corticosteroids and intravenous cyclophosphamide in two women, and methotrexate in one. Four pregnancies ended in live births despite pre-eclampsia in two cases. One therapeutic abortion was induced because of encephalocele. Comparable reported cases were reviewed to examine the implications of immunosuppressive treatment on the fetus. A relapse occurred during pregnancy in 40% of the cases, but in 25% if only pregnancies beginning during inactive disease were taken into account. No other indicator for maternal and fetal outcome was obvious. pregnancy should be planned after complete disappearance of disease activity. In the case of a relapse a combination of immunosuppressive drugs and corticosteroids should be chosen rather than corticosteroids alone because the outcome of pregnancy is poor in cases of undertreatment. Prematurity remains common.
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keywords = nose
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9/147. Transsphenoidal meningoencephalocele in adults.

    BACKGROUND: Transsphenoidal meningoencephalocele is a rare congenital anomaly, reported only in 14 adult patients. It may be subdivided into intrasphenoidal, extending into the sphenoid sinus, and true transsphenoidal, traversing the floor of the sinus and protruding into the nasal cavity or nasopharynx. methods: We present the eighth case of true transsphenoidal meningoencephalocele reported in an adult. We review the literature and highlight the differences in clinical presentation and therapeutic management between patients with intrasphenoidal and true transsphenoidal meningoencephalocele. CONCLUSION: adult patients with intrasphenoidal meningoencephalocele often present with rhinorrhea and should be considered for transsphenoidal repair, whereas patients with true transsphenoidal meningoencephalocele should not undergo surgery, in view of the complex anatomy and the slow progression of symptoms.
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keywords = nasal
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10/147. Autosomal dominant familial frontonasal dermoid cysts: a mother and her identical twin daughters.

    A dermoid cyst is an ectodermal cyst that contains an epithelial lining as well as adnexal structures, and may occur in numerous areas of the body. The nasal dermoid accounts for 1% of all dermoid cysts and 3-12% of head and neck dermoid cysts. While there have been familial cases reported, a genetic inheritance for nasal dermoids has not been suggested. We present the first reported case of a mother and her identical twin daughters who were all found to have evidence of frontonasal dermoid cysts. Our case and a review of literature seem to implicate an autosomal dominant inheritance in certain instances of nasal dermoids.
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keywords = nasal
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