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1/3. association of Tonate virus (subtype IIIB of the Venezuelan equine encephalitis complex) with encephalitis in a human.

    Tonate virus, subtype IIIB of the Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) complex, was first isolated in 1973 in french guiana, south america. However, very little is known about its pathogenicity; it was considered to be responsible for only mild dengue-like syndromes. In 1998, a 2-month-old boy living along the Oyapock river in french guiana was hospitalized for fever and generalized status myoclonus, and despite treatment the patient died 72 h after admission. Testing showed the presence of IgM specific for viruses of the VEE complex. A sensitive seminested polymerase chain reaction derived from a previous study was developed to detect viruses from the VEE complex, since no virus could be recovered from clinical specimens cultured on mosquito cells or from intracerebral inoculation into newborn mice. The genome of a virus from the VEE complex was detected in postmortem brain biopsies, and Tonate virus was identified by direct sequencing. This is the first reported case of human encephalitis due to Tonate virus.
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keywords = encephalitis
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2/3. Short report: Isolation and identification of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus from a human in panama.

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus was isolated from a febrile human in panama. The patient became febrile approximately 10 days after returning from Gatun Lake in panama. The virus was isolated from the acute phase serum and identified as VEE, subtype id virus by monoclonal antibodies, and was confirmed by cross plaque-reduction neutralization tests.
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keywords = encephalitis
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3/3. Ten clinical cases of human infection with venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus, subtype I-D.

    The clinical and laboratory findings in ten humans infected with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, subtype I-D, are described in this report. Clinical and laboratory data indicate that, in contrast to equine infections, human infection with these enzootic virus strains (I-D) is similar to human infection with epizootic strains (I-ABC). In most cases there was an abrupt onset of fever, muscle pain, and vomiting. Virus was recovered from sera obtained during the first 3 days of illness. lymphopenia occurred in all patients, and neutropenia occurred in three. No sequelae of these infections were apparent.
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ranking = 0.1
keywords = encephalitis
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