Cases reported "Encephalomyelitis"

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1/54. Detection of anterior horn lesions by MRI in central European tick-borne encephalomyelitis.

    We report a case of central European tick-borne encephalitis with cervical myelitis presenting clinically as a lower motor neuron syndrome of the upper limbs with proximal asymmetrical pareses and atrophies. There were no sensory deficits nor signs of lesions of the spinal pathways or signs of encephalitis or meningitis. The affected motor fibers of the upper limbs were electrically inexcitable, but sensory findings were normal. electromyography of the paralyzed muscles revealed pathological denervation activity without voluntary activation. The initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a large hyperdense lesion in the anterior part of the cervical cord from C3 to T1. Despite the fact that MRI changes disappeared completely within 6 weeks the patient showed only little improvement in the paralyzed muscles after 6 months. To our knowledge, these MRI changes in patients with tick-borne encephalitis, consistent with an isolated anterior horn lesion, have never been reported previously. The course may have been aggravated by an initial antibiotic treatment with cephalosporins.
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ranking = 1
keywords = encephalitis
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2/54. Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis: report of three cases and review of the literature.

    attention is directed to the diagnosis of acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis and the possibility of its clinical recognition is discussed. Three case histories, two diagnosed at autopsy and one clinically, are presented. The latter was treated with very generous doses of steroids and recovered spectacularly. On omission of steroids, a mild, temporary clinical recurrence occurred. Clinical, clinico-pathologic, and pathologic aspects of the disease are discussed, and etiologic factors mentioned. Some thoughts on the relationship of this disease to experimental allergic encephalomyelitis are mentioned. Differential diagnosis is considered and the use of biopsy for confirmation of diagnosis especially from herpes encephalitis considered. A plea is made for the trial of treatment with large doses of steroids.
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ranking = 2.0009634779851
keywords = encephalitis, herpes
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3/54. Fatal myeloencephalitis following yellow fever vaccination in a case with hiv infection.

    A 53 year old physically healthy man, unaware of any immunocompromised condition developed rapidly fatal myelomeningoencephalitis following a live-attenuated yellow fever vaccination. He was found to have asymptomatic hiv infection with high viral loads and low CD4 counts. This is the first reported case of such an incidence in the world literature. It is strongly suggested that in countries where hiv infection is endemic, an hiv blood test should be performed prior to the yellow fever vaccination and the vaccine should not be given to those immunocompromised persons.
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ranking = 1.6708974126184
keywords = encephalitis, meningoencephalitis
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4/54. encephalomyelitis due to human parechovirus type 1.

    OBJECTIVES: The implication of a viral agent in encephalomyelitis has been reported for several years. In the present study we wanted to demonstrate the presence of human parechovirus type 1 (HPEV1) in a patient diagnosed with encephalomyelitis. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical samples (throat and rectal swabs, acute and convalescent sera, cerebrospinal fluid) were collected from a 10-month-old boy diagnosed with encephalomyelitis. The appropriated samples were tested for cytomegalovirus, varicella zona virus, mumps virus and enteroviruses with specific culture, and serological and molecular biological techniques. RESULTS: HPEV1 was isolated from the throat and its genome was additional detectable in the cerebrospinal fluid, throat swab and acute serum. The samples were negative for all other tested viruses. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of HPEV1 infection related to encephalomyelitis. This emphasis that human parechoviruses can be responsible for severe central nervous system infections in children.
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ranking = 0.018572506777386
keywords = varicella
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5/54. Unusual encephalopathy after acute chest syndrome in sickle cell disease: acute necrotizing encephalitis.

    stroke is the most common neurologic complication of sickle cell disease. acute chest syndrome (ACS) is a known risk factor for stroke in this population. Two patients (a 12-year-old boy and a 6-year-old girl) developed acute change of mental status and focal neurologic signs during episodes of ACS. The clinical and radiologic findings were compatible with acute necrotizing encephalitis, a variant of acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis. patients with acute neurologic deterioration in conjunction with ACS should be evaluated thoroughly for other causes of central nervous system disease including infectious/parainfectious processes as well as stroke.
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ranking = 1.6666666666667
keywords = encephalitis
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6/54. Pathological and virological assessment of acute HTLV-I-associated myelopathy complicated with encephalopathy and systemic inflammation.

    HTLV-I-associated myelopathy, also known as tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), is a chronic inflammatory disease of the spinal cord. Acute cases are uncommon. We report the case of a 41-year-old woman with acute HAM/TSP complicated with encephalitis, an intense inflammatory reaction of the nervous system and lymphocytic infiltration of skeletal muscles, liver, salivary, adrenal and pituitary glands. The immunohistochemical studies of the lymphocytes surrounding blood vessels showed both B- and t-lymphocytes, in similar proportion, with both CD4- and CD8-positive cells. In addition, many perivascular and scattered macrophages were observed. adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) was ruled out. The marrow aspirate was normal. Serial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis showed presence of htlv-i antibodies, but without intrathecal synthesis of specific antibodies. Determination of HTLV-I viral loads demonstrated increased levels in the CSF relative to the peripheral blood and may be associated with widespread inflammation. The pathological and immunological findings may help understand the role of immune-reactive cells in the pathogenesis of HTLV-I-associated myelopathy.
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ranking = 0.33333333333333
keywords = encephalitis
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7/54. Postinfectious myelitis, encephalitis and encephalomyelitis.

    Six cases of post-infectious encephalomyelitis are described. A preceding non-specific viral-like illness occurred 4 to 20 days before the onset of the neurological deficits. The clinical syndromes included transverse myelitis, focal encephalitis and encephalomyelitis (each in one case) and diffuse encephalitis in 3. magnetic resonance imaging appeared to be the investigation of choice. High dose corticosteroids were given to 4 patients who recovered partially or fully. The patient with focal encephalitis had a spontaneous and complete recovery. The remaining patient with diffuse encephalitis died 3 days after the onset; autopsy showed prominent lymphocytic perivascular cuffing in the white matter and lymphocytic infiltration of the meninges.
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ranking = 2.6666666666667
keywords = encephalitis
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8/54. Successful treatment of human herpesvirus 6 encephalomyelitis in immunocompetent patient.

    We report a case of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) encephalomyelitis in an immunocompetent patient, which was confirmed by viral amplification from cerebrospinal fluid. Cidofovir was used, followed by ganciclovir, because of an adverse effect to probenecid. The patient recovered. HHV-6 should be recognized as one of the causes of encephalomyelitis.
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ranking = 0.98745037566418
keywords = human herpesvirus, herpesvirus, herpes
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9/54. Post-infectious encephalomyelitis associated with St. Louis encephalitis virus infection.

    Neurologic illness associated with acute St. Louis encephalitis, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis virus infection includes acute aseptic meningitis, encephalomyelitis, and a poliomyelitis-like syndrome. Few post-infectious immune-mediated neurologic events associated with flaviviral infection have been reported. The authors report on a woman with apparent post-infectious encephalomyelitis associated with recent St. Louis encephalitis virus infection, suggesting that neurologic illness from flaviviruses may also be seen in the post-infectious period following mild clinical illness.
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ranking = 2.3333333333333
keywords = encephalitis
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10/54. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis following plasmodium falciparum malaria caused by varicella zoster virus reactivation.

    Neurologic complications in the course of plasmodium falciparum infections are commonly diagnosed as cerebral malaria, but bacterial or viral meningitis may exhibit similar symptoms. One to three weeks after P. falciparum malaria, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) can also mimick the symptoms of cerebral malaria. We describe a 31-year-old woman with life-threatening ADEM five days after successful treatment of P. falciparum malaria. The detection of IgG and IgM antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) against multiple viruses and bacteria reflected a non-specific polyclonal B cell activation and was more confusing than helpful for diagnostic decisions. Varicella zoster virus was identified with a reverse transcriptase multiplex polymerase chain reaction in the initially obtained and frozen CSF. This case and findings from the literature indicate that P. falciparum-associated ADEM might not be immune mediated, but of infectious origin. With unclear cerebral complications during or after P. falciparum malaria, prompt initiation of empirical antiviral and antibacterial treatment in addition to antimalarials may reduce mortality.
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ranking = 0.10504529722628
keywords = varicella, zoster
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