Cases reported "Encephalomyelitis"

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1/79. Detection of anterior horn lesions by MRI in central European tick-borne encephalomyelitis.

    We report a case of central European tick-borne encephalitis with cervical myelitis presenting clinically as a lower motor neuron syndrome of the upper limbs with proximal asymmetrical pareses and atrophies. There were no sensory deficits nor signs of lesions of the spinal pathways or signs of encephalitis or meningitis. The affected motor fibers of the upper limbs were electrically inexcitable, but sensory findings were normal. electromyography of the paralyzed muscles revealed pathological denervation activity without voluntary activation. The initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a large hyperdense lesion in the anterior part of the cervical cord from C3 to T1. Despite the fact that MRI changes disappeared completely within 6 weeks the patient showed only little improvement in the paralyzed muscles after 6 months. To our knowledge, these MRI changes in patients with tick-borne encephalitis, consistent with an isolated anterior horn lesion, have never been reported previously. The course may have been aggravated by an initial antibiotic treatment with cephalosporins.
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ranking = 1
keywords = tick-borne, encephalitis
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2/79. Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis: report of three cases and review of the literature.

    attention is directed to the diagnosis of acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis and the possibility of its clinical recognition is discussed. Three case histories, two diagnosed at autopsy and one clinically, are presented. The latter was treated with very generous doses of steroids and recovered spectacularly. On omission of steroids, a mild, temporary clinical recurrence occurred. Clinical, clinico-pathologic, and pathologic aspects of the disease are discussed, and etiologic factors mentioned. Some thoughts on the relationship of this disease to experimental allergic encephalomyelitis are mentioned. Differential diagnosis is considered and the use of biopsy for confirmation of diagnosis especially from herpes encephalitis considered. A plea is made for the trial of treatment with large doses of steroids.
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ranking = 0.49663685229905
keywords = encephalitis
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3/79. scrub typhus encephalomyelitis with prominent focal neurologic signs.

    BACKGROUND: encephalomyelitis with prominent focal neurologic signs and associated neuroradiologic abnormalities has not been previously described in scrub typhus. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 22-year-old woman was admitted because of fever and an altered mental state. neurologic examination revealed bilateral sixth and seventh nerve palsies, bilateral gaze evoked nystagmus, anarthria, dysphagia, quadriparesis, and sensory level at T1. serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples were positive for tsutsugamushi antibody. The patient's magnetic resonance images demonstrated the lesions responsible for the neurologic dysfunctions: in the lower brainstem, cerebellar peduncles, and spinal cord. It was interesting that the gray matter of the spinal cord was predominantly involved. CONCLUSIONS: The recognition of unusual manifestations and the clinical suspicion of this treatment-responsive disease may be important, particularly in the face of increasing international and intranational travel.
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ranking = 0.00048939444491624
keywords = fever
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4/79. Echovirus 7 associated encephalomyelitis.

    BACKGROUND: hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is endemic in malaysia. In 1997, a large outbreak of enterovirus 71 (EV-71) associated HFMD resulted in 41 deaths due to severe left ventricular dysfunction and central nervous system infection with extensive damage to the medulla and pons. The clinical presentation in all these patients were rapid cardio-respiratory decompensation leading to cardiac arrest. Another large outbreak of HFMD with 55 fatal cases and a similar clinical picture was reported in taiwan in 1998. In 2000, an outbreak of HFMD resulted in the deaths of three children who had rapid cardio-respiratory decompensation and one child who survived a central nervous system infection. OBJECTIVES: We set out to study the etiologic agent and mechanism involved in three children who presented to our hospital, two of whom died and one survived a central nervous system infection. STUDY DESIGN: The clinical course of the disease was described. Throat, rectal swab and cerebrospinal fluid samples were subjected to viral isolation and viral isolates were identified by immunofluorescence, micro-neutralisation using human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells, and reverse transcritpase polymerase chain reaction. magnetic resonance imaging was performed on two of the patients. RESULTS: Echovirus 7 was the sole pathogen isolated from three cases of acute encephalomyelitis, two of which were fatal due to severe left ventricular dysfunction resistant to inotropic support. The survivor had residual bulbar palsy, but is considered to have had a good neurological outcome. CONCLUSION: Echovirus 7 infection associated with encephalomyelitis could be fatal due to indirect involvement of the heart resulting in severe left ventricular dysfunction. In addition one of the children presented with hand, foot, and mouth disease, a syndrome that has not been previously associated with echovirus 7 infection.
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ranking = 1.7505817564648
keywords = virus
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5/79. A local outbreak of paralytic rabies in Surinam children.

    A rapidly fatal encephalomyelitis, which was in most cases characterized by ascending paralysis, developed in seven children of the age of 3 to 10 years in a bushnegro village in the interior of Surinam. rabies virus was recovered from the central nervous system of three autopsied children. Although the source of infection has not been detected, there is an indication that, at least in some cases, the disease has been transmitted by rat-bite rather than by vampire bats. During the same period a few cases of minor febrile illness occurred in the same community. Since virological and serological evidence of a wide-spread distribution of Coxsackie A virus type 4 was obtained, the latter illness may presumably be attributed to this virus.
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ranking = 0.65646815867431
keywords = virus
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6/79. encephalomyelitis with rigidity complicating human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    A 34-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) presented with axial rigidity, painful spasms, and delayed hemiparesis and dementia. cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed no antiglutamic acid dehydrogenase antibodies but viral genome from Epstein-Barr virus was detected by polymerase chain reaction. Clinical features and possible viral aetiology of progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity are briefly discussed.copyright 2001 movement Disorder Society
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ranking = 1.3129363173486
keywords = virus
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7/79. Fatal myeloencephalitis following yellow fever vaccination in a case with HIV infection.

    A 53 year old physically healthy man, unaware of any immunocompromised condition developed rapidly fatal myelomeningoencephalitis following a live-attenuated yellow fever vaccination. He was found to have asymptomatic HIV infection with high viral loads and low CD4 counts. This is the first reported case of such an incidence in the world literature. It is strongly suggested that in countries where HIV infection is endemic, an HIV blood test should be performed prior to the yellow fever vaccination and the vaccine should not be given to those immunocompromised persons.
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ranking = 0.41680041025204
keywords = encephalitis, fever
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8/79. encephalomyelitis due to human parechovirus type 1.

    OBJECTIVES: The implication of a viral agent in encephalomyelitis has been reported for several years. In the present study we wanted to demonstrate the presence of human parechovirus type 1 (HPEV1) in a patient diagnosed with encephalomyelitis. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical samples (throat and rectal swabs, acute and convalescent sera, cerebrospinal fluid) were collected from a 10-month-old boy diagnosed with encephalomyelitis. The appropriated samples were tested for cytomegalovirus, varicella zona virus, mumps virus and enteroviruses with specific culture, and serological and molecular biological techniques. RESULTS: HPEV1 was isolated from the throat and its genome was additional detectable in the cerebrospinal fluid, throat swab and acute serum. The samples were negative for all other tested viruses. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of HPEV1 infection related to encephalomyelitis. This emphasis that human parechoviruses can be responsible for severe central nervous system infections in children.
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ranking = 2.4070499151391
keywords = virus
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9/79. Unusual encephalopathy after acute chest syndrome in sickle cell disease: acute necrotizing encephalitis.

    stroke is the most common neurologic complication of sickle cell disease. acute chest syndrome (ACS) is a known risk factor for stroke in this population. Two patients (a 12-year-old boy and a 6-year-old girl) developed acute change of mental status and focal neurologic signs during episodes of ACS. The clinical and radiologic findings were compatible with acute necrotizing encephalitis, a variant of acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis. patients with acute neurologic deterioration in conjunction with ACS should be evaluated thoroughly for other causes of central nervous system disease including infectious/parainfectious processes as well as stroke.
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ranking = 0.41386404358254
keywords = encephalitis
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10/79. Pathological and virological assessment of acute HTLV-I-associated myelopathy complicated with encephalopathy and systemic inflammation.

    HTLV-I-associated myelopathy, also known as tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), is a chronic inflammatory disease of the spinal cord. Acute cases are uncommon. We report the case of a 41-year-old woman with acute HAM/TSP complicated with encephalitis, an intense inflammatory reaction of the nervous system and lymphocytic infiltration of skeletal muscles, liver, salivary, adrenal and pituitary glands. The immunohistochemical studies of the lymphocytes surrounding blood vessels showed both B- and t-lymphocytes, in similar proportion, with both CD4- and CD8-positive cells. In addition, many perivascular and scattered macrophages were observed. adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) was ruled out. The marrow aspirate was normal. Serial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis showed presence of htlv-i antibodies, but without intrathecal synthesis of specific antibodies. Determination of HTLV-I viral loads demonstrated increased levels in the CSF relative to the peripheral blood and may be associated with widespread inflammation. The pathological and immunological findings may help understand the role of immune-reactive cells in the pathogenesis of HTLV-I-associated myelopathy.
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ranking = 0.082772808716508
keywords = encephalitis
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