Cases reported "Endocarditis, Bacterial"

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1/26. Response of complicated methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus endocarditis to the addition of trovafloxacin.

    The newer fluoroquinolones have many properties such as safety, bioavailability, and tissue penetration that make them attractive in the therapy of complicated infections. Unfortunately, the rapid development of resistance by Staphylococcus aureus to ciprofloxacin has dampened interest in these agents for serious staphylococcal infections. A patient with right-sided methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) endocarditis with a complicated clinical course received trovafloxacin in addition to vancomycin and rifampin. He was initially treated with vancomycin, gentamicin, and rifampin for serious MRSA infection, but because of complications, including septic central nervous system emboli, persistent fever, and leukocytosis, gentamicin was stopped and trovafloxacin begun. After this addition the patient improved and completely recovered. in vitro and animal model data show that many newer fluoroquinolones have excellent activity against S. aureus, including MRSA, and are also less likely to induce resistance. Animal models of endocarditis support their efficacy in serious staphylococcal infections.
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2/26. Once-daily aminoglycoside in the treatment of enterococcus faecalis endocarditis: case report and review.

    Once-daily administration of aminoglycosides (ODA) is effective and safe for many indications. By optimizing pharmacodynamic principles, it enhances bactericidal activity and minimizes toxicity. Its use for the treatment of enterococcal infection is controversial, however, and results of in vitro studies and animal models of endocarditis are conflicting. To date, no case reports or clinical trials have examined its utility in human enterococcal endocarditis. A patient with right-sided endocarditis caused by enterococcus faecalis was managed by once-daily gentamicin. Clinical and bacteriologic cures of this patient raise questions as to whether enterococcal endocarditis should be regarded as contraindication to ODA. The clinical utility of ODA in this disease deserves further investigation.
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keywords = animal
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3/26. endocarditis caused by penicillin-resistant viridans streptococci: 2 cases and controversies in therapy.

    Although penicillin-resistant viridans streptococci have been isolated from samples from the mouth, blood, and wounds in increasing numbers, viridans streptococci isolated from patients with endocarditis have remained sensitive to penicillin for the past 5 decades. We report the cases of 2 patients with penicillin-resistant viridans streptococcal endocarditis, review 6 other cases from the literature, and summarize 2 studies that used an animal model of penicillin-resistant viridans streptococcal endocarditis.
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4/26. Bacterial endocarditis caused by Oerskovia turbata.

    Oerskovia turbata is a yellow, motile actinomycete, which before now has only been found in soil and has not been known to cause disease in man or animals. It was isolated from 29 cultures of blood taken during 6 months from an urban pensioner after homograft replacement of his aortic valve. The combination of ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim was lethal for O. turbata in vitro; however, antimicrobial therapy alone failed to eradicate the patient's infection. Cure was achieved after the infected homograft was replaced with a prosthetic aortic valve. Although the source of O. turbata in this patient is unknown, sterilization of homograft valves with antimicrobial solutions is difficult. Moreover, environmental contamination during cardiopulmonary bypass is common. Oerskovia turbata is another opportunistic pathogen of man.
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keywords = animal
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5/26. pasteurella multocida endocarditis: report of a case.

    The present case involves a 48-year-old male patient who presented with pasteurella multocida endocarditis associated with preexisting mitral valve stenosis. A mitral valve replacement was successfully performed after 3 weeks of intravenous infusion with antibiotics. pasteurella multocida is a normal inhabitant of the oral cavity of dogs and cats. Therefore, people who have frequent contact with these animals should be examined periodically for signs of infection.
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keywords = animal
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6/26. endocarditis due to Staphylococcus aureus after minor dog bite.

    Living in a society of animal lovers, the dangers are often not always apparent. Injury from bites and scratches is an occupational hazard for those people who work with animals. Despite the high risk of secondary wound infection as a result of an animal bite, many patients do not receive treatment with an antimicrobial medication. This report describes a case of a previously fit and well 66-year-old female dog handler who, after an apparently minor dog bite to the hand, developed fulminant acute Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis and life-threatening aortic regurgitation. This article discusses the microbiology behind dog bites and highlights the need for proper wound hygiene and consideration of prophylactic broad-spectrum antibiotics to prevent potentially fatal outcomes as a result of what initially seem to be minor injuries.
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ranking = 3
keywords = animal
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7/26. erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae endocarditis: a preventable zoonosis?

    BACKGROUND: erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is a bacterium ubiquitous in the environment. It can cause a variety of diseases and the risk of infection is closely related to the level of occupational exposure to infected or colonised animals. AIMS: To discuss the clinical features and treatment of this zoonosis, to increase awareness of this pathogen and to emphasise the need for meticulous attention to hygienic work practices in reducing the risk of infection. METHOD: A case report of a farmer with E. rhusiopathiae endocarditis and the management of the infection. RESULTS: The patient was successfully treated with valve replacement surgery and antimicrobial therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Early identification of this microorganism is essential for appropriate treatment of endocarditis. Greater awareness and safe work practices can help reduce the risk of human infection by this microorganism.
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keywords = animal
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8/26. q fever endocarditis: diagnostic approaches and monitoring of therapeutic effects.

    The scope of current diagnostic methods for q fever endocarditis includes serology, direct demonstration of coxiella burnetii in the resected heart valve tissue, and animal inoculation studies. Illustrated by a clinical case report, the different methods are presented and discussed. serology represents the primary method, using the techniques of complement fixation, indirect immunofluorescence, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The latter two techniques allow the detection of immunoglobulins G, M, and A to the phase I and II antigens of C. burnetii. After cardiac surgery, we visualized C. burnetii on smears and specifically stained it on histologic sections of the resected heart valve by light and electron microscopic immunohistochemistry. In addition, seroconversion in animals after inoculation with valve specimens confirmed the presence of C. burnetii in the heart valve. The antibody titers determined by ELISA correlated well with the patient's clinical course during the treatment period. Therefore it is suggested that its usefulness for monitoring the efficacy of antimicrobial agents in patients with q fever endocarditis should be further evaluated.
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keywords = animal
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9/26. pasteurella multocida endocarditis.

    Human infection with pasteurella multocida is the leading cause of animal bite wound infection. life-threatening infection may occur in patients with a variety of underlying disorders and an immunocompromised state. Infective endocarditis with P. multocida is very rare and only a few clinically diagnosed cases have been reported. Described here is an autopsy case of a 61-year-old man with polycystic kidney disease who had P. multocida bacteremia and acute infective endocarditis with multiple bacterial clumps involving bicuspid aortic valve. The organisms were gram negative. Apparently the sepsis with P. multocida was acquired via licking of leg ulcers by his pet dog, establishing an animal-related causal relationship. Because P. multocida is a very common flora of many animals, infection with this organism probably occurs more frequently than is commonly appreciated. High index of suspicion and early diagnosis, especially in immunocompromised patients, are warranted because the disease is potentially life threatening, yet is a readily treatable infection.
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ranking = 3
keywords = animal
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10/26. Visceral botryomycosis in a case of erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae endocarditis.

    Botryomycosis is a rare bacterial infection of the skin and, rarely, viscera that is characterized by the formation of characteristic hyaline grains. We encountered a patient with erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae endocarditis who developed visceral botryomycosis. He was a 54-year-old black man who presented in sepsis with a history of progressive weakness and severe weight loss. He died 10 hours after admission. At autopsy, endocarditis was identified, along with infarcts of the spleen and kidneys. Microscopically, visceral botryomycosis was seen. With these bacteria, an animal source is usually identified, although one was not found in this man. erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is an organism that is becoming identified in a range of infections in humans, the manifestations and pathophysiology of which are still being discovered.
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