Cases reported "Endometrial Neoplasms"

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1/10. The use of microsatellite instability in the distinction between synchronous endometrial and colonic adenocarcinomas.

    The association of endometrial carcinoma with other gynecologic neoplasms, especially ovarian and fallopian tube carcinoma, has been well documented and is usually interpreted as a result of a field defect. Sporadic synchronous primary carcinomas occurring in the endometrium and colon are extremely rare, especially in the absence of the familial genetic abnormalities seen in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal carcinoma (HNPCC) syndrome, and may present a diagnostic dilemma. Two cases of synchronous adenocarcinomas of the endometrium and colon were studied for genetic abnormalities and differences to test for the presence of two primary tumors. Primary tumors, metastases, and normal tissues were microdissected from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. PCR amplification was performed for microsatellite DNA markers on chromosome 17q and 11q13. The colonic tumors were moderately and poorly differentiated, invasive, nonmucinous adenocarcinomas, whereas one uterine tumor was endometrioid adenocarcinoma and the other was papillary serous carcinoma. Although microsatellite instability, as evidenced by changes in the lengths of the amplified PCR products, was detected at 17q and 11q13 loci in the uterine and colonic neoplasms, the patterns of instability differed between the two primary tumor sites. Moreover, the lymph node metastasis in one colonic tumor had genetic alterations that differed from that of the primary tumor. In both patients, the molecular studies suggested the presence of two synchronous primary tumors. Molecular techniques may assist in distinguishing two separate primaries by determining the contraction and expansion of microsatellite regions in DNA obtained by microdissection from the primary tumors and associated metastases.
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ranking = 1
keywords = microsatellite instability, microsatellite, instability
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2/10. microsatellite instability and hMSH2 gene mutation in a triple cancer (colon cancer, endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer) patient in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) kindred.

    A patient who had triple cancer (colon cancer, endometrial cancer, and ovarian cancer) in HNPCC kindred is reported. Her family history revealed the occurrence of colon cancer in her paternal aunt and in two cousins, fulfilling the minimum HNPCC criteria. microsatellite instability analysis revealed replication error (RER) in all cancer lesions at 2 microsatellite loci (D1S191, BAT 40). SSCP analysis suggested germline mutation in exon 2 of the hMSH2 gene. This case showed the importance of complete family-history investigations to identify HNPCC patients. In the near future, definitive diagnosis of HNPCC will be possible on the basis of DNA studies.
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ranking = 0.010383483677401
keywords = microsatellite, instability
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3/10. Two cases of endometrial cancer meeting new clinical criteria for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer.

    BACKGROUND: New clinical criteria for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) that includes extracolonic cancers were recently proposed. We present 2 endometrial cancer patients who met the new criteria of 161 endometrial cancer patients. case reports: Case 1: A 55-year-old female was operated on for synchronous double primary cancers of the endometrium and rectum. She had also undergone an operation for metachronous ascending colon cancer at the age of 44. She had five relatives with a history of colorectal cancer. The rectal cancer tissue revealed no microsatellite instability (MSI). Case 2: A 48-year-old female underwent a radical operation for synchronous double primary cancers of the endometrium and ovaries. She had three relatives with a history of colorectal cancer. The endometrial cancer tissue showed high MSI. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of endometrial cancer patients meeting the new HNPCC criteria was 1.2% (2/161). These are the first case reports selected from consecutive endometrial cancer patients.
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ranking = 0.1962859793833
keywords = microsatellite instability, microsatellite, instability
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4/10. Simultaneous squamous cell carcinomas of the uterine cervix and upper genital tract: loss of heterozygosity analysis demonstrates clonal neoplasms of cervical origin.

    Five cases of cervical squamous cell carcinoma with synchronous superficial squamous cell carcinoma in the upper genital tract were genetically analyzed to demonstrate the possibility of a clonal neoplastic process. In these cases, the cervical lesions were squamous cell carcinoma in situ (cases 1, 2, and 3) and invasive squamous cell carcinoma (cases 4 and 5). loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analyses with a panel of microsatellite markers revealed a monoclonal process in four of the five cases. Homogeneous LOH throughout the microdissected lesions was most frequently detected on 6p and 6q (3 cases), followed by 11p and 11q (2 cases), loci known to be commonly lost in typical cervical squamous cell carcinoma. In two cases, genetic progression in terms of additional LOH was found in the upper genital tract but not in the cervix. Most of these squamous cell carcinomas were monoclonal neoplasms originating from the cervical mucosa with subsequent superficial migration of the tumor clone to the upper genital mucosa, and in some cases, genetic progression.
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ranking = 0.0091630035266817
keywords = microsatellite
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5/10. microsatellite instability and immunohistochemical analysis of MLH1 and MSH2 in normal endometrium, endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer from a hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer patient.

    Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC)-related endometrial cancer is associated with mutations in dna mismatch repair genes. However, chronological changes of these genes in the endometrium have not been studied in women from HNPCC families. Tissue samples of normal endometrium, endometrial hyperplasia without atypia and endometrial cancer were collected at different times from a 41-year-old Japanese woman with a family history of HNPCC. Combined microsatellite instability (MSI) and immunohistochemical analysis of MLH1 and MSH2 predicted the presence of a mutation in MSH2 when she had endometrial hyperplasia without atypia 7 months before the diagnosis of endometrial cancer. endometrial hyperplasia without atypia may indicate an early development of endometrial cancer in women from HNPCC families.
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ranking = 0.19726236350387
keywords = microsatellite instability, microsatellite, instability
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6/10. Endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma in a premenopausal woman presenting with metastasis to bone: a case report and review of the literature.

    We describe the clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features and microsatellite instability analysis of a rare case of endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma presenting as a metastasis to the ischium in a 39-year-old premenopausal woman. The patient was treated with a total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and bilateral pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy. One month later, she underwent an ischial resection followed by radiotherapy. After a follow-up of 3 years, the patient shows no evidence of disease.
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ranking = 0.1962859793833
keywords = microsatellite instability, microsatellite, instability
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7/10. Malignant transformation of atypical endometrial hyperplasia after progesterone therapy showing germ-cell tumor-like differentiation.

    A 31-year-old woman was treated for atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH) with high-dose medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) therapy to preserve fertility. The AEH was found by repeated cytologic and histologic examinations to have completely disappeared with the therapy, but 3 years after her last follow up she required emergency surgery to treat severe genital bleeding. The hysterectomied uterus consisted mostly of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, G3 endometrioid type. Minor AEH was present in the exophytic area, in which some glands were cystically dilated. Part of the AEH had transformed into other histologic features with germ-cell-like differentiation, demonstrated by immunohistochemical positive reaction of placental alkaline phosphatase, alpha-fetoprotein, and human chorionic gonadotrophin. Recurrent AEH had undergone malignant transformation, resulting in the development of well- and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and tumor exhibiting germ-cell-like differentiation. The patient died of a massive tumor extension 7 months after surgery. The AEH before MPA therapy and the recurrent tumors had genetically different characteristics based on evidence of a loss of heterozygosity, detected at D8S1132 (chromosomal locus, 8q22.1) in the latter but not in the former, by analysis of genetic alterations using microsatellite markers.
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ranking = 0.0091630035266817
keywords = microsatellite
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8/10. Development of metastatic endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma while on progestin therapy for endometrial hyperplasia.

    BACKGROUND: Conservative treatment with progestins is a reasonable treatment option for endometrial complex atypical hyperplasia and, in the experimental setting, for some women with grade 1 endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma. The risk of progression to a high-stage endometrial cancer is quite low, with only two previously reported cases in the English literature. CASE: A 40-year-old woman with endometrial complex atypical hyperplasia diagnosed by dilatation and curettage was managed conservatively with progestin therapy (initially, megesterol acetate; then, a combination oral contraceptive). More than 2 years after her original diagnosis, she developed endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma, FIGO grade 2, with lymph node metastasis. The tumor was microsatellite instability-high due to methylation of MLH1 and loss of MLH1 protein. CONCLUSION: Currently, there are no good criteria for predicting which patients with complex atypical hyperplasia/grade 1 endometrioid adenocarcinoma will optimally respond to progestin therapy. There is some evidence that endometrial complex hyperplasia demonstrating loss of MLH1 protein by immunohistochemistry is strongly related to subsequent or concurrent endometrial cancer, especially tumors of higher grade and stage. In a woman with a biopsy diagnosis of endometrial hyperplasia, evaluation of MLH1 protein status by immunohistochemistry may provide useful information when medical management is being considered.
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ranking = 0.1962859793833
keywords = microsatellite instability, microsatellite, instability
(Clic here for more details about this article)

9/10. radiation-associated angiosarcoma of the small bowel. A case of multiploidy and a fulminant clinical course. Case report.

    Angiosarcoma developing in unusual sites such as the gastrointestinal tract is not uncommonly associated with a known eliciting factor. Thus, among hitherto reported cases of angiosarcoma of the small bowel, five were radiation-associated. One additional example of ileal angiosarcoma induced by therapeutic irradiation of endometrial carcinoma is herein reported as a reminder of this causal association. DNA analyses of the primary growth as well as the metastatic deposits showed at least four aneuploid cell clones indicating genetic instability. This observation corresponds to the consistently poor prognosis of radiation-associated angiosarcoma of the small bowel.
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ranking = 0.00024409603014378
keywords = instability
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10/10. Cytogenetic abnormalities and microsatellite instability in endometrial adenocarcinoma.

    Recently various authors described a new mechanism involved in the genesis of some tumors, which is characterized by a tendency for replication mistakes and by genomic instability of microsatellite repeats. This instability can be revealed through the shift in the electrophoretic mobility of the analyzed fragments, which is due to a different number of repeat units. This phenomenon is widely documented in colorectal tumors of patients affected by hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal carcinoma (HNPCC). We performed a cytogenetic and molecular study of 23 endometrial adenocarcinomas to investigate the presence of genomic instability and to evaluate the possibility of a positive correlation with specific chromosomal changes. The study of genomic instability was performed using 23 microsatellites localized over 8 chromosomes. genomic instability of microsatellites was observed in 3 cases over all 8 analyzed chromosomes. The tumoral stage of cases with microsatellite instability does not differ significantly from the remaining tumors. As a matter of fact several cases showing no evidence of instability were more advanced (II B, III A) than tumors with instability. In ten cases we observed trisomy of chromosome 10, in some as a sole anomaly. The 3 cases with genomic instability revealed a near-diploid karyotype and all showed the presence of a supernumerary marker derived from chromosome 1 rearrangements. A derivative chromosome 1 was revealed in 4 cases without evidence of microsatellite instability. It should be noted that the presence of many unidentified markers and the small number of tumors with instability do not allow us to give a definitive significance to this observation. Our results indicate that there is not an apparent correlation between microsatellite instability and specific chromosomal abnormalities. Moreover, we did not find any correlation between pathological characteristics of the tumor and genomic instability. microsatellite instability appears to be a relatively rare event in endometrial carcinoma.
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ranking = 1.4041759225947
keywords = microsatellite instability, microsatellite, instability
(Clic here for more details about this article)
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