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1/7. Sclerosing stromal tumor of the ovary in a premenarchal female.

    Sclerosing stromal tumor (SST) is a rare benign ovarian neoplasm of stromal origin with less than 100 cases reported in the literature. Unlike the other stromal tumors, thecomas and fibromas, which tend to occur in the fifth and sixth decades, sclerosing stromal tumors predominantly affect females in the second and third decades. Computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound findings have been described, but have not been reported previously in the pediatric literature. We present a case of SST of the ovary in a 10-year-old premenarchal female, the youngest patient to our knowledge reported in the literature, and describe the ultrasound and CT findings with pathologic correlation. ( info)

2/7. Pulmonary metastases from a low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma confirmed by chromosome aberration and fluorescence in-situ hybridization approaches: a case of recurrence 13 years after hysterectomy.

    Pulmonary metastasis from low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESSs) occasionally are found after long, disease-free periods, mostly as incidental histological or radiological discoveries. We describe a case of low-grade ESS presenting as nodular pulmonary metastases finally diagnosed by estrogen-receptor staining, cytogenetic and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses, and perusal of the histology of hysterectomy material. An abnormal nodule in the lung field was discovered by means of chest X-ray of a 47-year-old woman. She had been disease free for 13 years after hysterectomy for an alleged leiomyoma. A computed tomographic scan revealed nodules, with fluctuation in size over the 2-year period, in both lungs. Finally the lesion in the left lung was resected, and pulmonary endometriosis was suspected because of the lack of stromal cell nuclear atypia and positive immunohistochemical reactions for estrogen and progesterone receptors. However, a characteristic karyotype was identified cytogenetically: 46, XX, t(7;17)(p15;q11), the translocation of which, specific to ESS, was confirmed by FISH analysis. A final diagnosis of pulmonary metastases from an ESS could be made by reviewing the histology of the previous uterine tumor. In this case, metastatic lesions from an ESS showed a decrease as well as an increase in size, despite the malignant potential. Immunostaining for estrogen and progesterone receptors and cytogenetic and FISH analyses, together with clinical information on the past gynecological history, are valuable diagnostic keys. ( info)

3/7. Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma with an extensive epithelial-like element.

    A case of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma with extensive epithelial-like element (ELE) is reported. This tumor was composed of classical endometrial stromal sarcoma (CESS) showing diffuse proliferation, and ELE occupying approximately 72% of the tumor mass. On immunohistochemistry, ELE was negative for sex-cord differentiation markers, and was positive for myogenic markers used in our investigation, and had a particularly prominent positivity for alpha-smooth muscle actin within the ELE. Therefore, it was considered that ELE showed no true sex cord feature, but smooth muscle differentiation. Moreover, ELE was also positive for CD10, suggesting that it was derived from CESS. It has been reported that there is a distinct clinical behavior between endometrial stromal tumors with abundant ELE and those with limited ELE. In the present case, the Ki-67 labeling index was markedly higher in CESS than in ELE. Therefore, a difference in cell proliferative activity between ELE and CESS might underlie a different clinical prognosis. ( info)

4/7. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor arising in the rectovaginal septum.

    We report herein a rare case of malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) originated from the rectal wall, which presented as a tumor on the rectovaginal septum. A 54-year-old Japanese woman, gravida 4, para 3, was admitted complaining of anuresis and severe constipation. She had a history of hysterectomy and right salpingo-oophorectomy for uterine leiomyoma 11 years previously. Pelvic examination revealed an 8.5 x 7.5 x 7.5 cm hard mass in the rectovaginal space. The inferior border of the tumor was 2 cm from the vaginal introitus and 2 cm from the anus. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a well-circumscribed soft-tissue mass filling the rectovaginal space. urinary bladder and rectum were markedly compressed and displaced. colon fiberscopy revealed invasion of the tumor into the rectal mucosa. An abdominoperineal resection of the rectum with posterior vaginal wall resection and pelvic lymphadenectomy was performed. The resected specimen showed a rectal submucosal tumor that was 8 x 8 x 7 cm in size. The tumor was diagnosed as a malignant GIST. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed this diagnosis. The patient is now healthy without evidence of recurrence at 13 months after surgery. Gynecologists should be aware of rectal GIST arising in the rectovaginal space as a differential diagnosis of vaginal submucosal tumor. ( info)

5/7. An endometrial stromal tumor with osteoclast-like giant cells.

    endometrial stromal tumors (ESTs) of the uterine corpus have a striking propensity to display diverse morphological variations, including sex cord-like, smooth muscle, or skeletal muscle differentiation; fibrous change; myxoid change; or bland endometrioid-type glands. They may also contain rhabdoid, foam, clear, or epithelioid/granular cells among others. Recently, we have encountered an EST showing smooth muscle differentiation and osteoclast-like giant cells that were predominantly concentrated in the areas showing smooth muscle differentiation. Osteoclastlike giant cells have not been previously reported in EST to our knowledge; thus, this finding expands the morphological spectrum of these tumors. In addition, although the level of infiltration at the peripheries of the tumor exceeded that allowable under the Tavassoli and Norris criteria for stromal nodules, it did not reach the classic permeative infiltration generally associated with endometrial stromal sarcomas. Historical, prognostic, and diagnostic aspects of margins in EST, especially in those borderline cases such as ours, are also discussed. ( info)

6/7. Unusual morphologic features of endometrial stromal tumors: a report of 2 cases.

    endometrial stromal tumors with typical morphology usually do not pose diagnostic problems. However, the finding of unusual morphologic features may be misleading in the final interpretation of these tumors. Herein, we described two endometrial stromal sarcomas discovered in hysterectomy specimens of women 31 and 75 years of age. Features typical of endometrial stromal neoplasia were present in both cases. Additionally, in 1 case, extensive fatty metaplasia as well as smooth and skeletal muscle metaplasia were found; and in the second case, focal bizarre nuclei, smooth muscle differentiation, and fibrous change were present. The differential diagnosis in the first case included cellular intravenous leiomyomatosis/lipoleiomyomatosis with skeletal muscle differentiation; and in the second case, a cellular smooth muscle tumor with bizarre nuclei was considered. ( info)

7/7. Recurrent endometrial stromal tumors with smooth-muscle differentiation and a protracted clinical course.

    BACKGROUND: A 24-year-old white female gravida 1, para 0010, presented with heavy vaginal bleeding and abdominal cramps of 2 weeks' duration. Medical history was remarkable for spontaneous abortion 5 years previously. She had no significant family history or other gynecological problems. physical examination revealed tissue fragments and blood clots oozing from the cervical os, and her uterus was diffusely enlarged. INVESTIGATIONS: physical examination, ultrasound, uterine dilation and curettage, immunohistochemistry and human androgen receptor gene clonality analysis, uterine sonohistogram, MRI and exploratory laparotomy. diagnosis: Intrauterine dissemination of endometrial stromal tumors with smooth-muscle differentiation. MANAGEMENT: Partial wedge resection of the anterior uterine wall via abdominal myomectomy and total abdominal hysterectomy. ( info)

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