Cases reported "Enophthalmos"

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1/85. Functional indications for enophthalmos repair.

    PURPOSE: In general, orbital augmentation to correct enophthalmos is pursued to prevent or address an aesthetic deformity. In some cases, however, functional deficits may accompany enophthalmos and may serve as an indication for surgical intervention. The authors describe a series of patients with such deficits. methods: A retrospective review at a tertiary health care center of all patients with enophthalmos was conducted to identify a subset of cases in which the enophthalmos was associated with nonaesthetic, functional deficits that could not be attributed to muscular or neural dysfunction, or soft tissue scarring. RESULTS: Six patients with either traumatic enophthalmos (orbital fractures) or non-traumatic enophthalmos (sinus disease and orbital soft tissue atrophy) demonstrated nonaesthetic ocular dysfunction, including gaze-evoked diplopia, eyelid retraction, lagophthalmos, and exposure keratitis. The symptoms and signs resolved in the three patients who underwent orbital augmentation. CONCLUSIONS: In some patients with enophthalmos and globe ptosis, globe malposition may alter the underlying eyelid mechanics or extraocular muscle alignment, resulting in functional as well as aesthetic problems. In these patients, restoring the native orbital anatomy through orbital augmentation can reverse eyelid malposition, ocular surface exposure, and symptomatic diplopia, avoiding the need for eyelid or strabismus surgery. ( info)

2/85. Transient vertical diplopia and silent sinus disorder.

    A 57-year-old man had isolated transient recurrent vertical diplopia. Left hypoglobus and enophthalmos were present. Investigations revealed an otherwise asymptomatic left maxillary chronic aspecific sinusitis, with 8 mm lowering of the left orbital floor. Transient diplopia was thought to be secondary to transient fusion impairment. Orbital floor reconstruction cured the patient. ( info)

3/85. Asymptomatic enophthalmos: the silent sinus syndrome.

    Although uncommon, enophthalmos may be a presenting symptom of chronic maxillary sinusitis with secondary attentuation of the orbital floor. As such, as awareness of this entity, known as the "silent sinus syndrome," is important to all practising otolaryngologists. Two such cases are presented herein, together with a discussion of the pathophysiology, management, and current literature. ( info)

4/85. Missed orbital wall blow-out fracture as a cause of post-enucleation socket syndrome.

    BACKGROUND: Post-enucleation socket syndrome (PESS: deep upper lid sulcus, ptosis or upper lid retraction, enophthalmos and lower lid laxity) is a well-recognised complication of a volume-deficient anophthalmic socket. A patient requiring enucleation following severe ocular trauma may have an underlying orbital wall blow-out fracture which if overlooked can cause severe volume deficit with poor cosmesis and limited prosthesis motility. PURPOSE: To establish the prevalence of an undiagnosed blow-out fracture in patients with PESS and a history of relevant trauma. methods: medical records and orbital computed tomography (CT) scans were reviewed for all patients presenting with PESS and a history of relevant trauma. RESULTS: Undiagnosed blow-out fractures were found in 15 (33%) of 45 patients presenting between August 1993 and December 1996. These were significant enough to warrant surgical repair in 13 (29%) patients. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that any patient presenting with PESS and a history of relevant trauma should be considered to have an orbital wall blow-out fracture until proven otherwise by CT scanning of the orbit. Similarly any patient requiring enucleation following severe ocular trauma should undergo CT scanning to rule out a coexisting blow-out fracture which could be repaired at the time of enucleation. ( info)

5/85. Unilateral lid retraction during pregnancy.

    A 32-year-old woman noted left lid retraction during pregnancy. Examination revealed unilateral enophthalmos without symptoms of diplopia or sinus disease. Orbital imaging showed characteristic features of the silent sinus syndrome, which were confirmed intraoperatively. The clinical and imaging attributes of this syndrome are discussed, including possible mechanisms of disease development. Management strategies are summarized. A brief discussion of the differential diagnosis of enophthalmos is also included. ( info)

6/85. sinusitis-induced enophthalmos: the silent sinus syndrome.

    enophthalmos caused by inadequate maxillary sinus function was first reported in 1964. Since this initial report, scattered case reports and, more recently, reviews have appeared in the literature detailing the pathophysiology, clinical findings, and management of this process. We present a classic case of the asymptomatic development of enophthalmos caused by maxillary sinus hypoventilation: the silent sinus syndrome. In addition, this case included findings in the ethmoid sinuses that suggested their contribution to this disorder, which by our review of the literature has not been well described. ( info)

7/85. The spectrum of presentation of silent sinus syndrome.

    The general clinical, ophthalmologic, and radiologic features of three patients with silent sinus syndrome are presented. All three patients were treated surgically. The cases of these patients illustrate the spectrum of presentation of silent sinus syndrome, including enophthalmos, hypophthalmos, transient vertical diplopia, lid retraction, lagophthalmos, and blurred vision. All patients had sinus disease, and all patients improved after surgery using functional endoscopic sinus surgery techniques. The protean manifestations of silent sinus syndrome can be identified, thereby allowing appropriate management. ( info)

8/85. The use of the Naugle orbitometer in maxillofacial trauma.

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Objective measuring of globe position is not a universal practice in the management of orbital trauma. Few studies in the literature advocate its routine use. methods AND MATERIALS: The Hertel exophthalmometer is the most widely used instrument; however, in trauma involving the lateral orbital rim (e.g., in zygoma fractures), the results are inaccurate because the displacement of the zygomatic bone interferes with its reference point on the lateral orbital rim. A more recent measuring device, the Naugle orbitometer, was introduced in 1992. It uses the superior orbital rim (frontal bar) and inferior orbital rim (malar eminence) as reference points. RESULTS AND/OR CONCLUSIONS: This article reports experience with this instrument in objective measuring the position of the globe in orbital trauma. These measurements are used 1) to monitor fractures that may not require repair but should be followed and observed for dystopia or enophthalmos, 2) to determine the adequacy of fracture repair, and 3) to determine the volume adjustment required for correcting enophthalmos. Future studies will be directed to compare the accuracy of Naugle and Hertel exophthalmometers. ( info)

9/85. Endoscopic repair of posttraumatic enophthalmos using medial transconjunctival approach: a case report.

    A blowout fracture of the medial orbital wall should be suspected when periorbital trauma results in epistaxis, orbital hemorrhage, horizontal dysmotility or dystopia of the globe, and/or orbital emphysema. Large medial orbital wall blowout fractures are frequently complicated by posttraumatic enophthalmos. Clinicians should consider a medial transconjunctival approach for repair of these fractures when surgical repair is indicated by a comprehensive clinical and radiologic orbital evaluation. Excellent cosmetic and functional results can be achieved through the use of an extended transcaruncular incision, rigid endoscope, and high-density porous polyethylene implant placement. The technique can be used in the early, delayed, and late stages of medial orbital wall blowout fracture repair. The technique can be used alone in isolated medial orbital wall fractures or combined with other craniofacial approaches. ( info)

10/85. Orbital volumetric analysis: clinical application in orbitozygomatic complex injuries.

    Fifteen patients with unilateral orbitozygomatic complex fractures and five with bilateral injuries were analyzed with respect to the differences in orbital volume between the affected and the uninjured, or other, side. The study was conducted using the ALLEGRO Workstation and software package from ISG Technologies, which was capable of calculating volume partitions from either axial or coronal images. patients without postoperative enophthalmos demonstrated a maximum volume difference of 3.8%; those with enophthalmos demonstrated differences of 4% or greater. The Critical Volume Difference at which enophthalmos becomes clinically apparent (whereby the orbital-corneal distance measured by Hertel exophthalmometry is greater than 3 mm on the affected side) is in the range of 4% to 5%. Volume analysis of the orbits by manipulation of the computed tomography data may allow a better understanding of changes in orbital configuration, which can result in better-directed primary and secondary reconstructions. ( info)
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