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1/59. incidence and outcome of a 10-fold indomethacin overdose in premature infants.

    We reviewed the incidence and morbidity of a 10-fold medication error among all premature infants treated with indomethacin. We detected 4 incidents among 1059 indomethacin doses given to infants weighing less than 1000 g. None of the infants had intracranial hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis, or significant deterioration of renal function.
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2/59. Spontaneous biliary perforation and necrotizing enterocolitis.

    A case of spontaneous bile-duct perforation in a 5-month-old boy with a history of necrotizing enterocolitis in his 1st week of life is reported. To our knowledge, this is the second case reported with such an antecedent, supporting a vascular etiology for some cases of spontaneous biliary perforation.
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3/59. Necrotizing enterocolitis in omphalopagus conjoined twins.

    female omphalopagus twins underwent laparotomy on the second day of life after an antenatally diagnosed high jejunal bowel obstruction. Bowel resection and choldocho-enterostomies were performed. Despite recovery from laparotomy, the development of severe necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in one twin led to rapid deterioration and the death of both infants on day 34. The elucidation of the combined biliary tree, the dilemma of NEC in conjoined twins, and the possibilities of emergency separation are discussed. Consideration should be given to emergency separation of conjoined twins in the event of potentially lethal complications.
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4/59. aeromonas sobria infection with severe soft tissue damage and segmental necrotizing gastroenteritis in a patient with alcoholic liver cirrhosis.

    A 49-year-old man, who had a 3-year history of liver dysfunction but had not been treated, was admitted to the hospital with a sudden onset of fever and generalized muscle pain. He subsequently developed generalized purpura with scattered hemorrhagic bullae of the skin and massive bloody stools. aeromonas sobria was proven by culture of both blood and bullous fluid. In spite of the extensive treatment with antibiotics and other medications in the intensive care unit (ICU), the patient went into septic shock and died 2 days after admission. Pathological examination on autopsy revealed segmental necrotizing gastroenteritis with bacterial colonies and alcoholic liver cirrhosis, in addition to extensive severe soft tissue damage involving cellulitis and rhabdomyolysis and epidermolysis. Although the prognosis for vibrio vulnificus infection with severe soft tissue damage in patients with liver cirrhosis, malignancy, diabetes mellitus or other pre-existing diseases is poor, the unfavorable progression of aeromonas species, especially A. sobria infection is rare. This is thought to be the first report of an autopsied case.
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5/59. klebsiella pneumoniae with extended spectrum beta-lactamase activity associated with a necrotizing enterocolitis outbreak.

    BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal emergency in newborn infants, affecting primarily premature neonates. Clustering of cases in epidemics is well-described; many are associated with an identifiable pathogen. patients AND methods: case reports are presented of six neonates seen with NEC during a 2-month period in 1998. All bacterial isolates were subjected to antibiotic testing, determination of MIC and molecular fingerprinting. RESULTS: klebsiella pneumoniae with extended spectrum beta-lactamase production was isolated from blood cultures of all six patients. In five patients the isolate appeared to be a single clone. The onset of NEC in the patients was earlier, more rapid and more severe than usual. Four of the six required surgery and five required mechanical ventilation. Two of the six patients died, but only one was directly related to a complication of NEC. All of the patients developed severe thrombocytopenia (platelet count <20 x 10(9)/l), and three developed hepatitis. The K. pneumoniae proved difficult to eradicate. Extended courses of multiple antibiotics were administered and measures were introduced to reduce overcrowding and improve infection control. CONCLUSION: The isolation of a single clone of K. pneumoniae with extended spectrum of beta-lactamase activity during an NEC outbreak highlights the need for strict infection control. This organism caused significant morbidity and was difficult to treat.
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6/59. Multiple spontaneous small bowel anastomosis in premature infants with multisegmental necrotizing enterocolitis.

    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Fulminant necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) may result in extensive bowel necrosis. Resection of involved segments may result in short bowel syndrome. Multiple stomas result in complications and further loss of intestinal length with closure. methods: Two patients with extensive multisegmental NEC were treated with an intraluminal stent without anastomosis. All necrotic intestine was resected and the remaining viable intestine was lined up over a feeding tube without anastomosis of the intestinal segments. One patient had a diverting jejunostomy and mucous fistula with the tube used to orient the defunctionalized intervening intestinal segments. The second patient had the bowel left in continuity with the tube brought into the jejunem proximal to the first area of resection and distally brought out through the tip of the appendix. Both tubes were brought through the abdominal wall and secured in a loop. RESULTS: Contrast study findings showed that the intestinal segments had auto-anastomosed. In the first case the tube was left in place and intestinal continuity was restored. The patient is now 4 years old and takes full enteral feeds. The latter patient had the enterostomy tube removed at the time of the contrast study, but only tolerated partial feedings and died at 1 year of total parenteral nutrition-related liver failure. CONCLUSION: The technique eliminates nonviable bowel, maximizes length, avoids multiple stomas, and may help avoid reoperation.
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7/59. Acquired ileal atresia and spontaneous reconstitution of intestinal continuity in a premature infant with necrotizing enterocolitis.

    An 849-g (26-week gestation) premature infant had pneumoperitoneum on the 20th day of life after having normal stools and accepting partial enteric alimentation. Percutaneous penrose drainage had to be performed on 2 consecutive days at 2 different sites (right lower quadrant, left lower quadrant), at which time she stabilized. Eleven days later, she started to pass stool, and oral feeding was begun (1 to 2 mL every 4 hours). Enteral intake could not be advanced because of repeated bouts of abdominal distension, despite having regular bowel motions. Gastrointestinal contrast radiographic investigation suggested a stricture of the ileum. At laparotomy (at age 2 months) ileal atresia with a "V"-shaped defect in the mesentery was found. Surprisingly, intestinal continuity was established via an ileoileal fistula. After resection and anastomosis, she recovered fully. Mesenteric and enteric vascular ischemia (necrotizing enterocolitis) produced acquired ileal atresia-a rare occurrence. More rare is the reestablishment of intestinal continuity by fistulization.
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8/59. Use of "Gore-Tex surgical membrane" to minimize surgical adhesions in multistaged extrathoracic esophageal elongation for esophageal atresia.

    The procedure of choice in the surgical correction of "long gap" esophageal atresia should, when possible, preserve the native esophagus. We present a modification of "the multistaged extrathoracic esophageal elongation method," designed to facilitate esophageal elongation and use of a Gore-Tex (W.L. Gore and Associates, Flagstaff, AZ) surgical membrane to minimize surgical adhesions. We used this technique to successfully treat a 1-kg infant, with type A esophageal atresia, associated aortic coartation, and severe necrotizing enterocolitis with multiple perforations. Multistaged extrathoracic esophageal elongation was begun at the age of 9 months and concluded at 17 months.
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9/59. Anaesthetic management of liver haemorrhage during laparotomy in a premature infant with necrotizing enterocolitis.

    The case of a 680 g premature baby who developed massive spontaneous liver haemorrhage during laparotomy for necrotizing enterocolitis is reported. The infant survived due to rapid and massive fluid administration, including transfusion of large volumes of blood and blood products, in combination with high dose inotropic support and the surgical use of packing with thrombostatic sponges. Good venous access, including two central venous lines, turned out to be very useful.
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10/59. Cyanotic congenital heart disease and necrotizing enterocolitis: report of three cases.

    Three infants with cyanotic congenital heart diseases (CCHD) had abdominal distension, poor activity at day 2, day 3, and day 23. The abdominal roentgenograms showed dilated bowel loops, pneumatosis intestinalis, and pneumoperitoneum. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) was diagnosed. After medical and surgical intervention, one infant survived. In this report, we discuss the relationship between CCHD and NEC. The possible risk factors were also discussed, and it is recommended that NEC be a considered significant complication of infants with CCHD.
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