Cases reported "enterocolitis"

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1/148. CD4/CD8 double-positive adult T cell leukemia with preceding cytomegaloviral gastroenterocolitis.

    We present a rare case of adult T cell leukemia (ATL) in which leukemic T cells simultaneously expressed CD4 and CD8 surface antigens and refractory cytomegalovirus (CMV)-induced gastroenterocolitis preceded its clinical onset. A 40-year-old male was admitted to our hospital with abdominal pain and bloody stool. biopsy specimens of the gastric and rectal mucosa indicated CMV-induced gastroenterocolitis. The patient also proved to be seropositive for human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I). While being administered gancyclovir for CMV infection, he presented hepatomegaly and systemic lymphadenopathy. Monoclonal expansion of lymphoid cells integrated with HTLV-I genome was observed. He underwent a LSG15 regimen and hepatomegaly and lymphadenopathy improved markedly. Gastroenterocolitis also improved, but the symptoms did not disappear completely. CMV-induced diseases are prevalent among immunosuppressed patients. Although there was no evidence that this patient had ATL on admission, it is likely that he was severely immunodeficient. CMV can easily infect damaged mucosa. ATL cells often infiltrate gastrointestinal mucosa and may have triggered CMV gastroenterocolitis in this case. ( info)

2/148. Adenovirus enterocolitis in human small bowel transplants.

    This report describes two cases of pediatric small bowel transplant patients who developed diffuse adenovirus enterocolitis of their allografts. Based upon the presenting symptoms for this complication, in both patients a differential diagnosis of allograft rejection versus viral infection was clinically entertained. The clinical condition in both instances rapidly deteriorated and both patients died shortly after the development of the symptoms of fulminant septicemia. Autopsies were performed and histologic examination revealed extensive denudation of the gastrointestinal mucosa with edema and a marked acute and chronic inflammatory infiltrate involving the entire wall of the grafts. Numerous viral intranuclear and intracytoplasmic inclusions were evident and an immunohistochemical stain specific for adenovirus was strongly positive in the infected cells. In addition, while in the first case the adenovirus appeared confined to the GI tract, the second patient displayed numerous viral inclusions in the lung as well as within multiple liver abscesses. At this point, the incidence of adenovirus as a cause of gastroenteritis in small bowel transplant patients remains to be determined. We believe that the importance of recognizing this particular type of viral infection in this group of patients lies primarily in differentiating it from other viral organisms (e.g., CMV) that require a specific antiviral therapy. Moreover, an identification of this entity could help avoid a misdiagnosis of rejection which could lead to an unnecessary increase in immunosuppressive therapy and a possible exacerbation of the underlying condition. ( info)

3/148. Ischaemic enterocolitis complicating idiopathic dysautonomia.

    A previously fit 23 year old adult male who presented with a sudden onset of profound autonomic neuropathy, for which no cause could be found, is described. The patient subsequently developed ischaemic enterocolitis that ultimately necessitated colectomy and subtotal enterectomy. Potential neural and humoral mechanisms are discussed. ( info)

4/148. Eosinophilic enterocolitis and visceral neuropathy with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

    A patient is described who was found to have both eosinophilic enterocolitis and visceral neuropathy with chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction. The etiology and pathogenesis of this rare combined disorder of the gastrointestinal tract are discussed. Although eosinophilic enterocolitis is amenable to conservative treatment, surgery may be necessary for palliation in selected patients with pseudo-obstruction due to visceral neuropathy. ( info)

5/148. sepsis.

    OBJECTIVES: To review infection and sepsis in patients with cancer and to provide an overview of controversies and research-based practices of infectious complications and management strategies. DATA SOURCES: research studies, review articles, web sites, and consensus documents. CONCLUSIONS: Traditional assumptions about infection and its optimal management are redefined by research regarding transfusion and catheter-related infections, prophylactic antibiotic administration, use of growth factors, and antimicrobial therapy regimens. IMPLICATIONS FOR nursing PRACTICE: Infection is still the most common source of morbidity and mortality among cancer patients. The importance of recognizing high-risk patients, implementing infection prevention practices, and prompt intervention for infection symptoms has been established. ( info)

6/148. A plea for incidental appendectomy in pediatric patients with malignancy.

    The evaluation of right lower quadrant (RLQ) abdominal pain in pediatric patients with malignancy can be difficult. However, since the mortality rate from peritoneal infections in these patients is very high, the differential diagnosis of RLQ peritoneal irritation, mainly of acute appendicitis (AA) versus neutropenic enterocolitis (NE), is crucial. Three cases of pediatric patients with malignancy demonstrating these difficulties are represented to enlighten this problem. The first patient died of multiorgan failure after operation for perforated appendicitis without generalized peritonitis. The second had a severe life-threatening postoperative complication because of delayed diagnosis of acute appendicitis. The third patient with malignant pelvic spread, underwent an unnecessary abdominal exploration for suspected AA. In all these cases and probably in many others, the clinical outcome could have been different if a previous incidental appendectomy had been performed during the primary abdominal operation. Incidental appendectomy in oncologic patients is recommended to facilitate the differential diagnosis of RLQ pain and to exclude the diagnosis of AA. ( info)

7/148. Chronic microscopic enterocolitis with severe hypokalemia responding to subtotal colectomy.

    The authors present the first case report of a 50-year-old woman with a 33-year history of severe, chronic watery diarrhea and hypokalemia secondary to chronic active microscopic enterocolitis with patterns similar to lymphocytic colitis but with acute cryptitis and terminal ileum involvement microscopically. The progressive nature of her illness resulted in multiple hospital admissions secondary to hypokalemia with subsequent chronic renal failure. High continuous doses of oral potassium supplements failed to correct the hypokalemic episodes. After subtotal colon resection, the patient made a marked clinical improvement with normal serum potassium levels without receiving potassium supplementation. ( info)

8/148. Type I acute aortic dissection accompanied by ischemic enterocolitis due to blood flow insufficiency in the superior mesenteric artery.

    We report a case of acute type I aortic dissection with ischemic enterocolitis due to blood flow insufficiency in the superior mesenteric artery. The patient was a 52-year-old man who visited the hospital with major complaints of sudden low back pain and melena. Mesenteric ischemia was suspected, and angiography revealed type I aortic dissection with accompanying blood flow insufficiency in the superior mesenteric artery. Because catheterization during angiography improved the blood flow disorder and prevented intestinal necrosis, it was possible to replace the ascending aorta with a prosthetic graft. Arterial pulsation in the mesentery was recovered by the operation and the patient's life was saved without bowel resection. This case demonstrates that prompt surgical or percutaneous relief of ischemia in major organs is important to save lives in the cases of acute aortic dissection with ischemic complications. ( info)

9/148. food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome: clinical perspectives.

    food Protein-Induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a symptom complex of severe vomiting and diarrhea caused by non-IgE-mediated allergy to cow's milk and/or soy in infants. Symptoms typically begin in the first month of life in association with failure to thrive and may progress to acidemia and methemoglobinemia. Symptoms resolve after the causal protein (usually sensitivity to both cow's milk and soy) is removed from the diet. Symptoms recur approximately 2 hours after reintroduction of the protein along with a coincident elevation of the peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocyte count. The sensitivity is usually outgrown by 3 years of age. The purpose of this review is to delineate the characteristic clinical features, diagnosis and management of FPIES. Furthermore, infantile FPIES will be discussed in relation to clinical syndromes that share features with it ("atypical FPIES") and other food-allergic disorders affecting the gastrointestinal tract. ( info)

10/148. enterocolitis with pathogenic escherichia coli infection in renal transplant recipients: case reports.

    PURPOSE: We report three cases of enterocolitis associated with pathogenic escherichia coli infection in renal transplant recipients. methods/RESULTS: patients presented with abdominal pain and diarrhea at 1, 3 and 7 years after living-related renal transplantation. Pathogens of enterocolitis were identified by stool culture as verotoxin-2-producing O157:H7 E. coli, non-verotoxin-producing E. coli 06 and 0125. All patients were basically treated with fluid replacement with additional fosfomycin administration in the patient with O157:H7 E. coli infection. Immunosuppressive drugs were kept at maintenance doses throughout the treatment. CONCLUSION: All patients recovered uneventfully within 10 days after the onset of enterocolitis without severe complications. ( info)
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