Cases reported "Enterovirus Infections"

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1/23. Outbreak of severe neurologic involvement associated with enterovirus 71 infection.

    enterovirus 71 has been associated with several outbreaks, as well as sporadic cases, of central nervous system infection and has a worldwide distribution. Seven children with encephalitis and five with aseptic meningitis caused by enterovirus 71 were seen at Otsu Municipal Hospital during the summer of 1997. The infections were confirmed serologically, although detection of the viral genome in cerebrospinal fluid was unsuccessful. Seven children were diagnosed as having hand-foot-and-mouth syndrome, two were diagnosed as having herpangina, and three patients younger than 12 months old developed no eruptions. The skin or mucosal manifestations of this outbreak demonstrated considerable variation. The enterovirus 71 strain that caused the outbreak had a strong neurovirulent tendency. Among the patients with encephalitis, symptoms originating from the impairment of diencephalon were seen in four patients, and those originating from cerebellar impairment were seen in two patients. Brain magnetic resonance imaging in one patient revealed an abnormality in the pons. The neurologic manifestations associated with enterovirus 71 infection may be characterized by involvement of the cerebellum, brainstem, and diencephalon. enterovirus 71 is one of the pathogenic viruses that cause hand-foot-and-mouth syndrome, as well as a variety of other clinical manifestations. The most important of these is neurologic disease, especially in infants and young children.
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ranking = 1
keywords = encephalitis
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2/23. Enteroviral meningoencephalitis as a complication of X-linked hyper IgM syndrome.

    We describe 5 children from 2 families with mutations in the cd40 ligand (CD40L) gene leading to absent expression of CD40L on activated CD4 cells. All subjects presented with interstitial pneumonia with low serum IgG and normal serum IgM. One child had normal and one child had elevated serum IgA. Four had confirmed pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. In spite of intravenous immunoglobulin treatment yielding therapeutic serum immunoglobulin levels, 3 children had enteroviral encephalitis. When assessed by flow cytometry, the 3 surviving affected male children had absent CD40L expression on activated CD4( ) T cells. The affected children from both families were shown to have the same single nucleotide insertion (codon 131) resulting in frameshift and early termination within exon 4 (extracellular domain). This observation demonstrates that persistent enteroviral infection is not only observed in X-linked agammaglobulinemia but may also occur in patients with X-linked hyper IgM syndrome.
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ranking = 3.6624038847695
keywords = encephalitis, meningoencephalitis
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3/23. Sequential peripartum herpes simplex virus type 2 disease in parents and their newborn mimicking intrafamily spread of common viruses.

    herpes simplex type 2 (HSV2) disease developed sequentially among two parents and their newborn. The father first became ill with upper-respiratory symptoms and fever. Then, 5 days later, shortly after delivery, the mother had fever, pharyngitis, and diarrhea. Subsequently, the infant developed undifferentiated febrile illness at the age of 3 days. HSV etiology was recognized by incidental isolation of HSV2 from the newborn naospharynx. The father never developed genital lesions and the mother's symptoms remained nonspecific for several days prior to the onset of genital manifestations. The sequential emergence and manifestations of these infections could have been misconstrued for an intrafamily spread of respiratory or enteric viruses. This cluster illustrates that HSV2 may cause sequential symptomatic disease in susceptible individuals mimicking other viruses.
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ranking = 0.00083181186139982
keywords = herpes
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4/23. Bilateral hippocampal encephalitis caused by enteroviral infection.

    Nonpolio enteroviral encephalitis usually presents as a diffuse, generalized encephalitis. Focal cerebral involvement by nonpolioviruses is uncommon, and neuroradiologic studies in these cases are usually normal. The authors present a case of a 5-year-old male with an acute encephalitic illness and bilateral lesions of the hippocampi on magnetic resonance imaging. Enteroviral nucleic acids were detected in the cerebrospinal fluid by the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The findings suggest that enteroviral infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute bilateral hippocampal encephalitis in patients in whom polymerase chain reaction fails to demonstrate the presence of herpes simplex virus.
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ranking = 3.5002079529653
keywords = encephalitis, herpes
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5/23. An outbreak of enterovirus 71 infection in taiwan 1998: a comprehensive pathological, virological, and molecular study on a case of fulminant encephalitis.

    BACKGROUND: In a recent enterovirus outbreak in taiwan, serotype 71 was the culprit of encephalitis causing rapid clinical deterioration and death among young children. OBJECTIVES: Since knowledge of enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection in the central nervous system is still limited, the purpose of the present case study was attempted to uncover the pathogenesis of the virus. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a detailed pathological examination, virological and molecular studies on a case of EV71 infection with a rapidly fatal outcome. In addition, the whole genome of the virus was sequenced to determine the genetic relationships to other enteroviruses and two other EV71 strains (a prototype BrCr and a neurovirulent MS strain), and to provide the genetic basis of its neurovirulence of the new isolate, NCKU9822 strain. RESULTS: Characteristic features of acute encephalomyelitis were observed, with most prominent lesions in the spinal cord and brain stem. Mild myocarditis and pancreatitis were also noticed. EV71 antigen was localized to neurons on immunohistochemical staining. EV71 was recovered from all organs with inflammatory reaction. sequence analysis showed that overall NCKU9822 and the two EV71 strains shared 80% nucleotide identity and 95% amino acid identity. It had only 45% amino acid and 52% nucleotide identities with polioviral P1 capsid region. CONCLUSION: The spinal cord and brain stem were the main targets of EV71 in the fatal cases in this outbreak, however, heart and pancreas might also be involved. Since the amino acid sequences in the P1 region are conserved (97% identity) among the three EV71 strains as compared to other enteroviruses and polioviruses, these EV71 neurovirulent strains might share the same mechanisms of neurovirulence, and the mechanisms might be different from those in polioviruses.
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ranking = 2.5
keywords = encephalitis
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6/23. Enteroviral meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised children after matched unrelated donor-bone marrow transplantation.

    Two children are described who presented with fever and generalized seizures, days 50 and 200, respectively, after matched unrelated donor-bone marrow transplantation. Upon antiepileptic treatment the seizures vanished but somnolence and fever remained. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was performed and revealed transient asymmetric multifocal hyperintense lesions. seizures were considered related to infection, and the cyclosporin A (CsA) treatment was not interrupted. enterovirus was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in the spinal fluid of one patient and in the sputum of the other. Both children recovered completely within the next weeks without neurological sequel. This report shows that enteroviral meningoencephalitis can present with seizures during the post-transplant period. It highlights the importance of MRI for neuroimaging and of viral infections as differential diagnosis to CsA neurotoxicity.
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ranking = 3.9530048559619
keywords = encephalitis, meningoencephalitis
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7/23. Congenital enterovirus 71 infection: a case study with virology and immunohistochemistry.

    Previously reported enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections associated with hand-foot-mouth disease, aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, polio-like myelitis, and paralysis all have involved young children. We report a 28-year-old woman who possibly contracted EV71 infection during pregnancy. Obstetric ultrasonograms at 25 weeks of gestation revealed an abnormal placenta, as well as hepatosplenomegaly, liver calcification, excessive ascites, and mild hydrocephalus of the fetus. Presence of EV71 was determined by immunodot blotting, virus culture, and partial sequencing of the amplified product of nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Postmortem immunohistochemistry further identified EV71 in the fetal midbrain and liver. The findings indicate that intrauterine EV71 infection is possible during pregnancy.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = encephalitis
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8/23. First fatal case of enterovirus 71 infection in hong kong.

    Enteroviruses are a common cause of childhood infections, from hand, foot and mouth disease, to lethal brainstem encephalitis. enterovirus 71 was first isolated in 1969. Brainstem encephalomyelitis and pulmonary oedema are postulated to be causally related and have been found to be a common feature of fatal enterovirus 71 cases. A fatal case of enterovirus 71 infection in a 2-year-old, previously healthy boy is reported. He presented to the Department of Paediatrics with clinical features of sepsis within 3 days of onset of fever. A few minutes after injection of midazolam, fentanyl and vecuronium for intubation, cardiac arrest developed and was not amenable to various treatment modalities. Pulmonary haemorrhage and oedema were noted during intubation, and postmortem examination confirmed the presence of brainstem encephalomyelitis.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = encephalitis
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9/23. Left ventricular dysfunction in children with fulminant enterovirus 71 infection: an evaluation of the clinical course.

    We describe 2 children with typical hand, foot, and mouth disease due to enterovirus 71 infection, 1 of whom died. Both cases were complicated by acute fulminant shock syndrome; the patients had remarkable acute left ventricular dysfunction. The clinical experience indicates that the rapid death associated with fulminant enterovirus rhombencephalitis is the result of rapid cardiogenic shock rather than neurogenic pulmonary edema.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = encephalitis
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10/23. Non-progressive viral myelitis in X-linked agammaglobulinemia.

    We report a 14-year-old boy with X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) complicated by isolated non-progressive myelitis caused by Coxsackie virus B1. Despite the absence of immunoglobulin supplement and persistence of the virus for the initial 2 years, motor impairment did not show any progression for 3 years. This report shows that the prognosis of central nervous system infection in XLA is not determined by immunoglobulin levels alone, and that it is not always progressive or fatal. The balance between host immunity and the virulence of the causative virus may be involved in the prognosis of meningoencephalitis in XLA.
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ranking = 0.79060097119237
keywords = encephalitis, meningoencephalitis
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