Cases reported "Ependymoma"

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1/82. Familial gliomas : a case report.

    Two non-twin brothers were found to have intracranial malignant neoplasms. The age of presentation was third and fourth decade but the onset was simultaneous, at the same time. diagnosis in each of them was made by computed tomography and confirmed by histopathology. Elder among them had cellular ependymoma and the younger had oligodendroglioma. Both the brothers received radiotherapy post operatively and were surviving asymptomatically without any neurological deficit, leading active life as police constable, 12 months after surgical treatment.
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2/82. Ependymomas of the spinal cord and cauda equina: An analysis of 26 cases and a review of the literature.

    STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review. OBJECTIVES: To clarify the clinical features of patients with spinal ependymomas and to compare the clinical results between the patients in whom microsurgical technique and spinal cord monitoring were used intraoperatively and the patients in whom they were not used. SETTING: Keio University Hospital, tokyo, japan. methods: Twenty-six consecutive patients with spinal ependymomas were treated surgically between 1958 and 1995. All patients underwent tumor resection through a posterior approach. Complete tumor resection was possible in 15 patients (57. 7%), and subtotal tumor resection (more than 90%) was done in two patients (7.7%). Only a partial tumor resection (less than 90%) was performed in the remainder of the patients (34.6%). The operative results of the patients were evaluated by the Japanese Orthopaedic association Scoring System (JOA score) and its recovery rate. RESULTS: The overall average recovery rate was 18.3%. The mean recovery rate was 14.4% in cervical lesion, 11.1% in thoracic lesion and 40% in lumbar lesion. The recovery rate of eight patients with cervical ependymomas who underwent tumor resection under both microscopic surgical procedure and intraoperative spinal cord monitoring was 37.1% although the recovery rate of the rest of the patients was -1.6%. There was a statistical difference between the two groups (P<0.02). The survival rate of patients following complete excision was statistically better compared to that of patients after incomplete resection. CONCLUSION: Both microsurgical technique and spinal cord monitoring are indispensable to achieve total removal of ependymomas and to obtain improvement of neurological recovery.
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3/82. spinal cord gliomas: management and outcome with reference to adjuvant therapy.

    The authors review their experience with 19 consecutive cases with either astrocytic tumour (glioblastoma multiforme one, anaplastic astrocytoma one, astrocytoma 4, pilocytic astrocytoma 4) or ependymoma (10 tumours in 9 patients) of the spinal cord who were treated during the period from 1982 to 1996. The patients included 10 male and 9 female patients with a median age of 38 years. The main tumour locations included the cervicomedullary region 5 the cervical cord (8), the thoracic cord (5) and one each in the thoracolumbar region and conus medullaris. While a total removal of the tumour was achieved in 8 out of 10 ependymomas, the initial treatment for astrocytic tumours was a partial resection in 5, and biopsy in the remaining 5. As adjuvant treatment, 8 patients received radiation therapy and 2 received chemotherapy. Two patients with an astrocytic tumour received chemotherapy only, while the remaining 9 received neither radiation therapy nor chemotherapy initially. After these treatments, 6 out of the 8 patients with low grade astrocytoma have remained alive for 1.3-12.6 years, while 2 patients with high grade astrocytic tumours died within 15 months following surgery. Eight out of 9 patients with an ependymoma have remained alive for 3.0-12.3 years, while one committed suicide 2 years after surgery. As a result, 14 patients are still alive; half of them are accompanied by a mild neurological dysfunction, while the remaining one has a moderate deficit. The postoperative results and the rationale for surgery is discussed, and an approach for utilising adjuvant therapy for high grade tumours is also suggested.
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4/82. MKM-guided resection of diffuse brainstem neoplasms.

    OBJECTIVES: Some primary brainstem tumors, when extensive, are considered inoperable. We wanted to assess the value of robotic image-guided microscopic surgery in the resection of these tumors and to improve survival and quality of life for these patients. methods: Two patients with extensive brainstem tumors were evaluated at our center. They previously underwent several biopsies, attempted partial resections, radiotherapy and shunting. They presented with progressive neurological deterioration, 'coma vigil' for several months, and required life-supporting measures prior to surgery. Both patients underwent frameless stereotactic craniotomy using a MKM robotic microscope, intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring, and extensive resection of their recurrent brainstem tumors. RESULTS: In the immediate weeks after surgery, both patients became interactive and regained major motor and cranial nerve deficits present prior to surgery. Nine months after surgery, 1 patient succumbed to pneumonia. At 2 years after the operation, 1 patient has maintained his neurological status and showed no recurrence on imaging studies. CONCLUSIONS: Image-guided surgery with an MKM microscope allows surgical outlines to be injected in the microscope viewer and facilitates resection of extensive brainstem tumors previously considered inoperable.
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5/82. Primary intradural extramedullary ependymoma: case report and review of the literature.

    STUDY DESIGN: The authors report the ninth case in the literature of a primary intradural extramedullary ependymoma of the spinal cord. OBJECTIVE: To discuss surgical treatment and the physiopathologic hypothesis of this localization on the basis of the results of the present study and a review of the literature. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: ependymoma is a glial tumor known to arise in the central nervous system. Intradural extramedullary location of this neoplasm has been exceptionally described previously. methods: A 43-year-old woman was admitted to the authors' institution with an history of progressive paraplegia. neurologic examination showed sensory loss below T1 and bladder disturbances. magnetic resonance imaging revealed an enhanced thoracic intradural extramedullary tumor, extending from T1-T8. No other lesion in the central nervous system was found. Emergency surgical resection was performed. RESULTS: Surgery gave confirmation of an encapsulated extramedullary tumor without attachment to the spinal cord or to the dura mater. Total removal was achieved under microscope. The postoperative course was uneventful, with complete neurologic recovery 3 months later. The patient has been well for 24 months of follow-up evaluation, without evidence of recurrence on magnetic resonance images. Histologic examination revealed the tumor as a benign ependymoma. CONCLUSION: The encapsulated feature, the lack of attachment to the central nervous system, and the absence of other neoplastic processes within the brain or the spinal cord suggested that this lesion is a primary tumor developed from ectopic ependymal cells.
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6/82. Recurrent lumbar ependymoma presenting as headache and communicating hydrocephalus.

    We describe a patient with a recurrent spinal cord ependymoma who initially presented with symptoms of increased intracranial pressure rather than symptoms directly relating to involvement of the conus medullaris. brain magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium showed communicating hydrocephalus. magnetic resonance imaging of the entire spinal cord with gadolinium revealed recurrent tumor. Postoperatively, a permanent ventriculoperitoneal shunt was placed. Recognition of the association between spinal cord ependymoma and hydrocephalus is important in the evaluation of patients with headache.
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7/82. Spinal seeding of anaplastic ependymoma mimicking fungal meningitis. A case report and review of the literature.

    BACKGROUND: The spinal seeding from brain tumors sometimes mimicks fungal meningitis on examination of cerebrospinal fluid. methods AND RESULTS: A 19-year-old woman gradually developed increased intracranial hypertension. MRI identified a mass in the right parieto-occipital area. It was totally removed and histologically diagnosed as an anaplastic ependymoma. radiation- and chemotherapy were administered postoperatively. The patient reported low back pain 5 months after the surgical treatment. MRI disclosed neither spinal dissemination nor tumor recurrence at the primary site. Lumbar puncture was performed and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was found to have an extremely low glucose level (5 mg/dl); no tumor cells were identified. blood samples were obtained and a relative increase of WBC and CRP was noted. A slight degree of inflammation and low-grade fever were recorded. A tentative diagnosis of fungal meningitis was made and anti-fungal therapy was administered transventricularly and transvenously. However, her neurological condition continued to deteriorate gradually. Sequential CSF studies showed that the glucose level remained extremely low, it even decreased to 0 mg/dl Eight months after the surgical treatment, MRI with Gd-DTPA revealed marked subarachnoid enhancement in both intracranial and spinal areas. An open biopsy was performed and a histological diagnosis of intracranial and spinal seeding of the anaplastic ependymoma was returned. CONCLUSIONS: We report a patient with intracranial and spinal seeding of an anaplastic ependymoma that mimicked fungal meningitis. We discuss the difficulty of obtaining a differential diagnosis in this case and describe the mechanism of the decreased CSF glucose level.
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8/82. Intramedullary clear cell ependymoma in the cervical spinal cord: case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Clear cell ependymoma of the spinal cord has not been reported in the literature, although ependymoma in the cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres has been described. We present the first case report of this rare histological type of ependymoma arising in the cervical spinal cord and emphasize the importance of recognizing this histological entity. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 42-year-old woman presented with numbness in both upper limbs and spastic gait. magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intramedullary tumor at the C6-T1 level with syringomyelia. INTERVENTION: The tumor was totally removed. Histological analysis revealed that the tumor was composed of round cells with perinuclear halos similar to those observed in oligodendroglioma. However, we diagnosed clear cell ependymoma because these tumor cells exhibited epithelial features and ependymal rosettes under light microscopic examination. CONCLUSION: Histological diagnosis was crucial to our determining whether to perform postoperative adjuvant therapy in this patient. Neurosurgeons should be aware of the possibility of this histological entity among intramedullary spinal cord tumors.
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9/82. Spinal tanycytic ependymomas.

    Three cases of spinal tanycytic ependymoma are reported, a man aged 45 years and two women aged 36 and 55 years. Each patient developed gradual paraparesis over a few months prior to admission. magnetic resonance imaging showed an enhancing, well-circumscribed tumor in the spinal cord in each case. Histologically, the tumors consisted of monotonous proliferation of long spindle cells with markedly eosinophilic cell processes; focally forming perivascular pseudorosettes. The tumor cells were strongly immunopositive for glial fibrillary acidic protein, S-100 protein and vimentin. Ultrastructurally, in addition to massive intermediate filaments, many tumor cells showed abundant microtubules. Well-developed desmosomes and microvilli/cilia-lined microlumina were occasionally observed. The tumors were grossly totally removed and the patients remain recurrence free at 9, 9, and 2 years postoperatively. Reviewing reported cases including our three cases, tanycytic ependymoma may occur frequently in spinal cord, especially in the cervical region of the spinal cord. Since histologically it resembles pilocytic astrocytoma and schwannoma, tanycytic ependymoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of benign spindle cell tumors of the central nervous system.
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10/82. Intraoperative diagnosis of tanycytic ependymoma: pitfalls and differential diagnosis.

    Smear preparations have become increasingly popular in the intraoperative assessment of central nervous system pathology. The cytological features of a histologically proven tanycytic ependymoma are presented with the pitfalls and differential diagnosis. The smear preparation showed a glial neoplasm composed of cells with long, bipolar glial processes and oval to spindle-shaped nuclei resembling those seen in pilocytic astrocytoma smears. The smear characteristics of an ependymoma usually show remarkably uniform round-to-oval nuclei, fluffy glial processes, and a perivascular nuclear-free zone (pseudorosetting). None of these features were present in our case. The accompanying frozen section showed a fascicular spindle-cell tumor that resembled a schwanomma, a commonly reported misinterpretation of the histology of tanycytic ependymomas on frozen sections. Careful attention to the radiological findings, the surgeon's impression, and the intraoperative smear preparation details should allow one to include this uncommon entity in the differential diagnosis of spinal neoplasms.
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