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1/5. Ocular and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in an African American man with epidermodysplasia verruciformis resulting in blindness and death.

    epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a hereditary disease that has served as a model for viral-induced carcinogenesis. patients with EV have an increased susceptibility to infection with human papillomavirus, which results in the development of benign lesions in childhood. The lesions may resemble tinea versicolor in appearance and distribution, and usually remain benign. However, later in life cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma may develop on sun-exposed areas, such as the forehead. radiation therapy may not only result in the malignant conversion of EV lesions, but may also increase the risk of metastases. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with EV in whom squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva developed. His clinical course was complicated by ocular invasion causing blindness, metastasis, and eventually death.
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ranking = 1
keywords = carcinogenesis
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2/5. Molecular characteristics and physical state of human papillomavirus dna change with progressing malignancy: studies in a patient with epidermodysplasia verruciformis.

    In order to establish the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in carcinogenesis of epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), the presence, the molecular characteristics and the physical state of HPV dna in a benign lesion, a primary carcinoma and a metastatic carcinoma developing in the same EV patient were studied and compared. Of the 2 HPV DNAs isolated from benign macular lesions, only one (a subtype of HPV 5) was detected in both primary and metastatic tumors. Only one normal species of viral dna molecule was detected in the benign lesion, whereas most, if not all, viral dna molecules present in the carcinoma (both primary and metastatic) were aberrant ones. The major viral dna molecule in the primary carcinoma was a large HPV dna with duplicated 40% subgenomic segments, and was present as free episomes. The major viral dna molecule in the metastatic carcinoma was the 40% subgenomic segment itself, lacking the remaining 60% segment of the viral genome, and was integrated within cellular dna. Thus, HPV dna was present in tumors at any stage of malignancy, and its molecular characteristics and physical state changed not only with the development but also with the enhancement of malignancy, consistently conserving its defined 40% subgenomic segment as the predominant viral sequences. Our results suggest that HPV 5 may be actually involved in carcinogenesis in EV patients.
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ranking = 2
keywords = carcinogenesis
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3/5. Human papillomavirus type 17 transcripts expressed in skin carcinoma tissue of a patient with epidermodysplasia verruciformis.

    Certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) are involved in skin carcinogenesis in epidermodysplasia verruciformis. However, no gene or gene product of HPV associated with skin carcinogenesis has yet been identified. Here, we report HPV-17 transcripts expressed in skin carcinoma tissue of an epidermodysplasia verruciformis patient infected with HPV-17. Further, we show that one of these transcripts was localized to a portion of the genome which contains the 3' open reading frames of the early region (E2, E3, E4 and E5). The analogous region in bovine papillomavirus type I has been shown to contain a transforming gene (Nakabayashi et al., 1983; Sarver et al., 1984; Yang et al., 1985a).
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ranking = 2
keywords = carcinogenesis
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4/5. Multiple metachronous skin squamous cell carcinomas and epidermodysplasia verruciformis in the head region: a human papilloma virus-associated disease.

    Data from a young adult man with epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) and multiple metachronous spinaliomas in the head and neck region are presented. diagnosis of this rare, human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated disease was based on: (1) Typical skin lesions, including viral warts, verruca plana-type lesions and pityriasis versicilor; (2) typical histological features, including "foamy giant keratinocytes"; (3) evidence of HPV 5, 8 and 20 in pityriasis versicilor-like lesions; (4) a cellular immunodeficiency due to a relative T-helper-cell deficit. No specific treatment of EV is known, so that therapy concentrates on early removal of spinaliomas and treatment of intercurrent infections. Since EV patients have numerous benign skin lesions and frequently develop metastatic and non-metastatic carcinomas, molecular changes of HPV during carcinogenesis can be studied.
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ranking = 1
keywords = carcinogenesis
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5/5. Involvement of human papillomavirus type 20 in epidermodysplasia verruciformis skin carcinogenesis.

    The involvement of human papillomavirus (HPV) in skin carcinogenesis in a patient with epidermodysplasia verruciformis was studied. This patient had disseminated pityriasis versicolor-like lesions, flat warts, and a malignant skin carcinoma. HPV types 3, 17, 20 (HPV-20), and 38 were isolated and molecularly cloned from the benign skin lesions of this patient. Of these HPVs, only HPV-20 was detected in the malignant skin carcinoma. Transcripts of HPV-20 were also expressed in the carcinoma. These findings suggest that HPV-20 was involved in the skin carcinogenesis in this patient.
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ranking = 6
keywords = carcinogenesis
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