Cases reported "Epidural Neoplasms"

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1/12. Primary spinal epidural mantle cell lymphoma: case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Mantle cell lymphoma is a distinct clinicopathological type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that often presents at an advanced stage, with systemic spread. Spinal involvement is uncommon and generally occurs as part of advanced disease or generalized relapses. Primary spinal epidural lymphoma is a rare initial manifestation of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and mantle cell lymphoma with initial presentation in the spinal epidural space is extremely rare, having been previously reported in only two cases. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 71-year-old man who presented with increasing weakness and numbness of the legs. magnetic resonance imaging revealed a spinal epidural mass in the lumbosacral region. INTERVENTION: The patient underwent a partial L4 and L5-S1 laminectomy, with incomplete resection of the mass for spinal decompression and tissue diagnosis. Mantle cell lymphoma was diagnosed in the pathological examination. CONCLUSION: After radiotherapy, the disease recurred with a soft-tissue mass in the anterior maxillary area of the face. The patient underwent restaging and was treated with chemotherapy, with only a partial response. Mantle cell lymphoma with primary spinal epidural presentation is rare. This diagnosis can be established and other causes of spinal cord compression can be ruled out by obtaining tissue for proper histopathological examinations. Because of its aggressive behavior and poor prognosis, mantle cell lymphoma should be treated using a combined-modality approach.
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2/12. Spinal epidural en-plaque meningioma with an unusual pattern of calcification in a 14-year-old girl: case report and review of the literature.

    A 14-year-old girl who presented with a severe sensory-motor-sphincter syndrome was found to be harboring an epidural tumor situated posteriorly in the spinal canal from C5 through C7 levels. The mass had computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging features suggesting an unusual stratified architecture, with a conspicuous highly calcific component firmly adherent to the dura and a non-calcific mass surrounding it posteriorly and laterally. Although meningiomas have a low incidence in the first two decades of life, and in the spine they rarely have entirely extradural location at any age, a meningioma was suspected. Intraoperative biopsy confirmed the tumor to be benign, and careful total resection including the whole large dural implant was carried out; the wide dural defect was grafted with fascia lata. A meningothelial meningioma with a largely calcified psammomatous component was diagnosed. The girl made a complete recovery, and is tumor-free 9 years postoperatively. Outcome from surgery for spinal meningiomas can be good, despite the severity of the preoperative condition; however, enplaque and highly calcific tumors still bear a poorer prognosis. Complete resection is mandatory in children, in whom they are extremely rare. Modern imaging techniques help in making a correct initial diagnosis and optimizing surgery in order to provide good results, even in more-challenging cases.
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3/12. Epidural metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    BACKGROUND: In nasopharyngeal carcinoma, both, a short metastasis-free interval after primary treatment and the occurrence of epidural metastasis have been associated with poor prognosis. We present the clinical course of a young patient with these two conditions and review the literature. PATIENT: A 26-year-old male with stage T2N3M0 non-keratinizing carcinoma (WHO type 2) of the nasopharynx was treated with induction chemotherapy and radical radiotherapy, 6 months after documentation of a clinical complete remission, the patient experienced metastatic disease to the C7-D1 vertebral bodies associated with an epidural soft tissue mass. Since no further metastatic lesions were detectable, the patient was treated with radiotherapy alone (3 960 cGy/22 fractions). RESULTS: Treatment resulted in compete resolution of neurological and radiological signs of the disease and the patient continues to be disease-free, 32 months after salvage treatment. In a literature search, we identified 54 reported cases with long-term survival after treatment for metastatic nasopharyngeal cancer. The vast majority of them had primary tumors with undifferentiated histology and was treated with combination chemotherapy. In 25 of them, radiotherapy was given as consolidation therapy (in 19 cases for bone and in six cases for mediastinal lymph node metastases). CONCLUSIONS: Epidural metastatic disease from a nasopharyngeal carcinoma is highly sensitive to moderate doses of fractionated radiotherapy. MR imaging is essential for the detection of relevant soft tissue disease extensions within the epidural space and proper selection of the radiation target volume in vertebral metastases. In patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, the occurrence of a solitary epidural metastasis after a short metastasis-free interval is not incompatible with long-term survival.
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4/12. Spinal angiolipoma: case report and review of the literature.

    Spinal angiolipomas are rare lesions usually found in the epidural space of the thoracic spine. This report presents a case of and reviews the literature on this rare entity. The etiology, clinical presentation, imaging, and treatment are discussed. In 92 reported cases of spinal angiolipoma 56 occurred in women (61%), and 36 in men (39%). Mean age of occurrence is 42.9 years (range 10 days-85 years) with most patients presenting with slowly progressive symptoms of spinal cord compression. Most cases occur in the extradural compartment, and are of the non-invasive subtype. This rare clinical entity must be considered in the differential diagnosis of spinal epidural lesions. In most cases complete removal is possible, however, prognosis is good even for infiltrating lesions. Thus, one must not risk neurological damage to attain complete resection.
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5/12. Thyroid follicular carcinoma metastasized to the lung, skull, and brain 12 years after initial treatment for thyroid gland--case report.

    A 65-year-old woman presented with multiple metastases from thyroid follicular carcinoma to the lung, skull, and brain. The skull and brain tumors had been successfully treated by surgery, thyroxine supplementation, and radiosurgery until she died of sudden intracerebral hemorrhage which had no connection with tumor treatment. The lung tumor was treated by conventional irradiation and radioactive ablation. Well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma is a slowly progressive tumor. Follicular carcinoma is thought to have the most optimistic prognosis even with metastases to the lymph nodes and lung. Radioactive ablation using iodine-131 is widely used to treat the primary and/or metastatic lesion. However, the prognosis for patients with brain metastases is poor. Intracranial metastasis of this tumor is rare, but has a mean posttreatment survival of around 12 months. Surgical excision of the metastatic intracranial lesion may be the only effective treatment.
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6/12. Solitary extradural cavernous hemangiomas in the spinal canal. Report of five cases.

    Five cases of solitary extrathecal cavernous hemangioma in the spinal canal are reported. In one case, two coexistent massive cerebral venous medullary malformations were found. The symptomatology and prognosis of extrathecal spinal cavernous hemangiomas are discussed, as is the significance of various diagnostic measures. The patient material further permitted a rough calculation of the incidence of symptomatic extrathecal cavernous hemangiomas in the spinal canal.
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7/12. Spinal epidural meningiomas in childhood: a case report.

    A case of a girl affected by an extradural spinal meningioma is described. This lesion is rare in childhood, and the prognosis may be not favorable. In our case a complete removal of the neoplasm with exeresis of the involved dura resulted in a very good clinical and radiological recovery.
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8/12. MRI of cranial chordomas: the value of gadolinium.

    Two intracranial chordomas are presented: a typical chordoma and a chondroid tumour. MRI with gadolinium showed different enhancement patterns, which may be related to pathological findings. The value of differentiating the two types of chordoma lies in their very different prognosis.
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9/12. Spinal extradural cavernous angioma.

    A case of spinal extradural cavernous angioma is described. The symptomatology and prognosis of such lesions is discussed and the relevant literature reviewed.
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10/12. Spinal extradural angiolipoma: case report and literature review.

    A case report of a 12-year-old child with a spinal extradural angiolipoma is presented. The tumor was totally removed and a good recovery was obtained. In a review of 43 previous cases, the clinical, radiological, and histological features of the tumor are discussed. It is stressed that spinal angiolipomas and spinal lipomas have to be considered as two different clinicopathological entities in order to ensure adequate treatment and prognosis.
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