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1/13. Paradoxic response to diazepam in complex partial status epilepticus.

    BACKGROUND: Antiepileptics including benzodiazepines have long been recognized to provoke seizures and precipitate status epilepticus occasionally. This has a special clinical importance in the case of diazepam because of its use as first choice medication in its management. This report is intended to highlight the clinical importance of such a situation. methods: The clinical course of a 28-year old man with complex partial status, which lasted for two months, is described in detail. RESULTS: Paradoxic response to diazepam was documented under EEG monitoring. A similar response was also noted for midazolam, and had probably contributed in exacerbating and prolonging the duration of status. CONCLUSION: Paradoxic response to diazepam and midazolam is rare, but may be under-recognized. It should be considered in the setting of refractory status epilepticus.
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ranking = 1
keywords = partial status epilepticus, partial status, complex partial status, status epilepticus, epilepticus, status
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2/13. Oral clonazepam sensitive focal status epilepticus (FSE).

    Focal status epilepticus (FSE) and epilepsia partialis continua (EPC) are relatively uncommon disorders. Antiepileptic drugs do not usually alter the FSE-EPC. An 11 year old female patient with progressive neurologic deficits and FSE showed a remarkable response to clonazepam, both clinically and electrophysiologically.
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ranking = 0.10156413181215
keywords = status epilepticus, epilepticus, status
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3/13. Prolonged post-ictal confusion as a manifestation of continuous complex partial status epilepticus: a depth EEG study.

    We report a peculiar depth-EEG recording of prolonged post-ictal confusion which proved to be continuous complex partial status epilepticus. A 33 year old male with intractable medial temporal lobe epilepsy exhibited this ictal EEG recording. After repetitive habitual complex partial seizures, and an ensuing short lucid interval with intact memory and full communicability, the patient became more and more unresponsive and, finally, even cataleptic. Concurrent with this change in responsiveness, an EEG revealed a gradual and steady increase of ictal EEG activity. Immediately after intravenous diazepam infusion, this ictal EEG activity was suppressed and the patient began to move. This case confirms that a paradoxical excitation can occur after clustered complex partial seizures, instead of the well-known neuronal exhaustion.
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ranking = 1.1314367088516
keywords = partial status epilepticus, partial status, complex partial status, status epilepticus, epilepticus, status
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4/13. A case of post-anoxic encephalopathy with initial massive myoclonic status followed by alternating Jacksonian seizures.

    To contrast stimulus-sensitive generalized myoclonus with ensuing multifocal localized myoclonus in a patient with post-anoxic coma, we stressed the clinical as well as electroencephalographical differences between his initial generalized and subsequent focal myoclonus. While generalized myoclonus was presumably of extracortical origin and responsive to valproic acid, alternating Jacksonian seizures were definitely cortical and suppressed with phenytoin. These two different types of myoclonus should not be confused in post-anoxic coma.
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ranking = 0.0004078171046226
keywords = status
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5/13. Transient MRI abnormalities associated with partial status epilepticus: a case report.

    We report the case of an 18-year-old woman who presented a long-lasting cluster of partial seizures, and MRI cortical abnormalities localized in the left parietal lobe. The MRI changes correlated with the site of the epileptogenic focus, and disappeared within 2 weeks. The recognition of these reversible MRI abnormalities, which are presumably due to a temporary alteration of blood-brain barrier in the epileptogenic zone with subsequent edema, and are not associated with any underlying organic conditions, is extremely useful in the medical management of the patient and allows to avoid other invasive diagnostic procedures.
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ranking = 0.82087185557508
keywords = partial status epilepticus, partial status, status epilepticus, epilepticus, status
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6/13. epilepsia partialis continua as a first symptom of multiple sclerosis: electrophysiological study of one case.

    RATIONALE: The prevalence of epilepsy in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) is higher than in the general population. Sometimes seizures are among the first symptoms and can be unusual in their semiology. In rare cases a long-lasting focal somatomotor status [i.e., epilepsia partialis continua (EPC)] has been reported. CASE REPORT: A 21-year-old male patient presented with a clinical picture of EPC as a first symptom of MS at age of 19. A neurophysiological study agreed with a cortical origin of myoclonic jerks. CONCLUSIONS: MS should be considered a rare but possible aetiology of EPC in adults.
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ranking = 0.00010195427615565
keywords = status
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7/13. epilepsia partialis continua in cat scratch disease.

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is a world-wide, diffuse, non-epidemic infection caused by the Gram-negative bacillus bartonella henselae. The occurrence of encephalopathy represents an infrequent and atypical complication, whose manifestations include ischemic strokes, transverse myelitis and epileptic seizures. status epilepticus has been described as the most frequent emergency in CSD encephalopathy. In this report, we describe a case of CSD complicated by an epilepsia partialis continua (EPC) manifested as rhythmic movements of the flexor muscles of the left hand. Although CSD is a benign, self-limited disease and a complete neurological recovery usually occurs, in the present case the EPC resulted in a partial epilepsy. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and back-averaged EEG data recorded during myoclonic activity document this CSD complication.
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ranking = 0.0053550400252503
keywords = epilepticus
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8/13. Generalised myoclonus evolving into epilepsia partialis continua due to a cingulate gyrus lesion: case report and review of the literature.

    A young Chinese male was admitted for a generalised tonic-clonic seizure preceded by a week-long history of fever. Subsequently, he developed continuous myoclonic jerks in all four limbs, with clear left sided predominance, and no accompanying clouding of consciousness. Contrast MRI of the brain demonstrated a venous angioma in the right cingulate gyrus. Over the next few days, the clinical picture evolved, with focal motor status involving primarily the left lower limb and the abdomen. These movements resolved with anticonvulsant therapy. This case illustrates generalised myoclonus arising from a focal brain abnormality. The epileptiform aetiology became obvious only after evolution into the typical features of a focal motor seizure and supportive neuroimaging. This demonstrates the protean manifestations of epileptic seizures which have been ascribed to the cingulate gyrus. The lack of clear declarative clinical and EEG features highlights the melding of the fields of epileptology and movement disorders.
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ranking = 0.00010195427615565
keywords = status
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9/13. Autoimmune thyroid encephalopathy presenting with epilepsia partialis continua.

    We report the first case of an autoimmune thyroid encephalopathy presenting with multifocal motor status epilepticus. A 37-year-old female patient was admitted with multifocal motor seizures intractable to intravenous status epilepticus treatments, asymmetrical quadriparesis, truncal ataxia and continuous semi-rhythmical jerks. Pathological signal alterations were detected in both precentral cortices in MRI examination. Autoimmune thyroiditis was diagnosed after radiological examinations of the thyroid gland and thyroid function tests. seizures promptly ceased following intravenous steroid treatment. immunohistochemistry studies showed mild to moderate neuronal staining with the plasma and CSF samples. Remarkably, autoimmune thyroiditis may present with migrating focal motor status epilepticus. We recommend anti-thyroid antibody screening for multifocal motor status epilepticus cases of unspecified cause.
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ranking = 0.081251305449718
keywords = status epilepticus, epilepticus, status
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10/13. Permanent hemiparesis due to partial status epilepticus.

    Partial status epilepticus (SE) produces permanent focal neurologic deficits if it lasts for months or is associated with systemic illness or CNS inflammation. We describe a patient in focal SE for just 5 days. Attacks were her habitual frontal lobe seizures. When SE stopped, permanent contralateral hemiparesis was present. There was no new cause for the weakness except the SE itself. We conclude that partial SE requires prompt and effective treatment, since it can lead to permanent neurologic dysfunction.
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ranking = 0.84118468193751
keywords = partial status epilepticus, partial status, status epilepticus, epilepticus, status
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