Cases reported "Epilepsies, Myoclonic"

Filter by keywords:



Filtering documents. Please wait...

1/43. Clinical, pathologic, and neurochemical studies of an unusual case of neuronal storage disease with lamellar cytoplasmic inclusions: a new genetic disorder?

    A child of first-cousin Puerto Rican parents had global developmental delay, failure to thrive, and hypotonia since early infancy. At 1 1/2 years of age, she developed clinical and electrophysiologic evidence of progressive motor and sensory neuropathy. At 2 1/2 years, she developed visual impairment and optic atrophy followed by gradual involvement of the 7th, 9th, 10th, and 12th cranial nerves. Uncontrollable myoclonic seizures began at 4 years and she died at 6 years of age. Motor nerve conduction velocities were initially normal and later became markedly slowed. Sensory distal latency responses were absent. Lysosomal enzyme activities in leukocytes and fibroblasts were normal. sural nerve and two muscle biopsies showed only nondiagnostic abnormalities. Electron microscopy of lymphocytes, skin, and fibroblasts showed cytoplasmic inclusions. light microscopy of frontal cortex biopsy showed neuronal storage material staining positively with Luxol fast blue, and electron microscopy showed cytoplasmic membranous bodies in neurons, suggesting an accumulation of a ganglioside. At autopsy, all organs were small but otherwise normal and without abnormal storage cells in the liver, spleen, or bone marrow. Anterior spinal nerve roots showed loss of large myelinated axons. The brain was small and atrophic; cortical neurons showed widespread accumulation of storage material, most marked in the pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampus. Subcortical white matter was gliotic with loss of axons and myelin sheaths. In cortical gray matter there was a 35% elevation of total gangliosides, with a 16-fold increase in GM3, a three- to four-fold increase in GM2 gangliosides, and a 15-fold elevation of lactosyl ceramide. GM3 sialidase activity was normal in gray matter at 3.1 nmols/mg protein per hour and lactosyl ceraminidase I and II activities were 70% to 80% of normal. In white matter, total myelin was reduced by 50% but its composition was normal. Phospholipid distribution and sphingomyelin content were normal in gray matter, white matter, and in the liver. These biochemical findings were interpreted as nonspecific abnormalities. The nature of the neuronal storage substance remains to be determined.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = cortex, visual
(Clic here for more details about this article)

2/43. Long-term follow-up of an individual with vitamin B6-dependent seizures.

    We report on a 31-year-old female with vitamin B6-dependent seizures whose seizure onset was in the neonatal period. Her elder brother had the same disorder and died in infancy. Administration of vitamin B6 was initiated in the postnatal period. At the age of 12 years 1 month, 2 months after withdrawal of vitamin B6, visual seizures began to occur frequently. Myoclonic seizures and occasional generalized convulsive seizures were also observed. At the same time, photoparoxysmal response and spontaneous diffuse spike-wave bursts were seen on her EEG. Myoclonic seizures were provoked by intermittent photic stimulation during the EEG. It is distinctive that visual seizures were one of the main seizure types in this patient, that her clinical course was relatively benign, and that she has normal intellectual outcome.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.054888140222406
keywords = visual
(Clic here for more details about this article)

3/43. Idiopathic myoclonus in the oromandibular region during sleep: a possible source of confusion in sleep bruxism diagnosis.

    As part of a larger study, polysomnographic and audiovisual data were recorded over 2 nights in 41 subjects with a clinical diagnosis of sleep bruxism (SB). Electromyographic (EMG) events related to SB were scored according to standard criteria (Lavigne et al. J Dent Res 1996;75:546-552). Post hoc analysis revealed that rapid shock-like contractions with the characteristics of myoclonus in the jaw muscles were observed in four subjects. EMG bursts characterized as myoclonus were significantly shorter in duration than bursts classified as SB. None of the subjects had any history of myoclonus while awake. Myoclonic episodes were more frequent in sleep stages 1 and 2 than in REM. Half of the episodes contained one or two contractions whereas the other half had three or more repetitive contractions. SB and myoclonus coexisted in one subject. To rule out sleep epilepsy, full electroencephalogram montage was done in three subjects and no epileptic spikes were noted. Our results suggest that approximately 10% of subjects clinically diagnosed as SB could present oromandibular myoclonus during sleep.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.027444070111203
keywords = visual
(Clic here for more details about this article)

4/43. Unilateral involuntary movement associated with streptococcal infection: neurophysiological investigation.

    Two boys developed rhythmic involuntary movements in the extremities on one side of the body after febrile illness. They also showed behavioral disturbances. In both patients, serum antistreptolysin-O and antistreptokinase titers were elevated in acute illness and decreased a few months later. One patient showed tremorous movement, and the other choreiform movement. In the former, a surface EMG showed short-duration (30 to 60 ms), highly frequent (6 to 8 Hz) and synchronous discharges of multiple muscles, including the antagonists, suggesting myoclonic jerk. In the latter, a surface EMG showed long-duration (0.5 to 1 s), repetitive (about 0.5 Hz) and synchronous or asynchronous discharges of the antagonists, suggesting choreoathetosis. In both patients, giant somatosensory evoked potentials and high-voltage slow EEG activities were observed predominantly in the hemisphere contralateral to the involuntary movement. In the myoclonic patient, long-latency EMG responses were enhanced and cortical potentials preceding the myoclonus were present by jerk-locked back averaging technique. The present data suggest that unilateral rhythmic involuntary movements occur secondary to streptococcal infection. The pathophysiology of the involuntary movements may be associated with sensorimotor cortex hyperexcitability.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.9725559298888
keywords = cortex
(Clic here for more details about this article)

5/43. Neuroserpin mutation S52R causes neuroserpin accumulation in neurons and is associated with progressive myoclonus epilepsy.

    Mutations in the Neuroserpin gene have been reported to cause familial presenile dementia. We describe a new family in which the S52R Neuroserpin mutation is associated with progressive myoclonus epilepsy in 2 siblings. The proband presented myoclonus and epilepsy at age 24, his brother and mother presented a similar disorder when they were 25. A clinical diagnosis of progressive myoclonus epilepsy was made on the proband and his brother. skin and liver biopsies did not reveal the presence of cytological alterations in the proband. His neurological status worsened over the subsequent 19 yr during which he became demented and had uncontrollable seizures. He died at 43 yr of age from aspiration pneumonia. Neuropathologically, eosinophilic bodies, which were positive for periodic acid-Schiff and immunoreactive with antibodies against human neuroserpin, were present in the perikarya and cell processes of the neurons. They were found in large numbers in the cerebral cortex and substantia nigra and to a lesser extent, in most subcortical gray areas, spinal cord, and dorsal root ganglia. By electron microscopy, the intracytoplasmic bodies were contained within the membranes of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Occasionally neuroserpin immunopositivity was seen throughout the cytoplasm, even without the presence of well-defined bodies. Our study characterizes for the first time the neuropathologic phenotype associated with hereditary progressive myoclonus epilepsy caused by the S52R Neuroserpin mutation.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.9725559298888
keywords = cortex
(Clic here for more details about this article)

6/43. Electroencephalographic dipoles of spikes with and without myoclonic jerks caused by epilepsia partialis continua.

    We used electroencephalographic (EEG) dipole analysis to investigate the generators of spikes with and without myoclonic jerks in a 12-year-old patient with epilepsia partialis continua secondary to left parietal cortical dysplasia. We recorded EEG and right wrist extensor electromyography (EMG) and collected 42 spikes with jerks (jerking spikes) and 42 spikes without jerks (nonjerking spikes). We applied a single moving dipole model to the individual and averaged spikes. Dipoles at the negative peak of individual jerking and nonjerking spikes were localized in the dysplastic area. At the onset of the averaged jerking spike that preceded the EMG discharges by 20 ms, the dipole was in the motor cortex, whereas for the averaged nonjerking spike, the dipole was in the sensory cortex. The dipole moment at averaged jerking spike onset was twice that of the averaged nonjerking spike. Electroencephalographic dipole analysis of averaged spikes differentiated the generator of jerking and nonjerking spikes in epilepsia partialis continua. Individual dipoles demonstrated the area of epileptogenic cortical dysplasia.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1.9451118597776
keywords = cortex
(Clic here for more details about this article)

7/43. Possible blindsight in infants lacking one cerebral hemisphere.

    patients with damage to the striate cortex have a subjectively blind region of the visual field, but may still be able to detect and localize targets within this region. But the relative roles in this 'blindsight' of subcortical neural systems, and of pathways to extra-striate visual areas, have been uncertain. Here we report results on two infants in whom one cerebral hemisphere, including both striate and extra-striate visual cortex, needed surgical removal in their first year. Single conspicuous targets in the half-field contralateral to the lesion could elicit fixations, implying detection and orienting by a subcortical system. In contrast, binocular optokinetic nystagmus (OKN), for which a subcortical pathway has often been thought adequate, showed a marked asymmetry. In normal neonates, fixation shifts and OKN have both been taken to reflect subcortical control; our results are consistent with subcortical control for fixation but not for OKN.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 2.0274440701112
keywords = cortex, visual
(Clic here for more details about this article)

8/43. Neurovascular microdysgenesis in a case of Unverricht-Lundborg's disease.

    An 18 year old female presented with a characteristic clinical course of Unverricht-Lundborg's disease. She was treated with several antiepileptic drugs but never with phenytoin. This patient died quietly during sleep. Coronal sectioning of the fixed brain revealed a 10 mm large red-brown solid cortical-subcortical lesion in the mesial part of the right frontal lobe and a similar alteration measuring 4 mm in the centromedian nucleus of the left thalamus. Histologically the lesions displayed supernumerary irregularly oriented vessels, mainly capillaries, and, in the cortex, a markedly disturbed neuronal orientation and lamination. Numerous heterotopic nerve cells were found in the subcortical white matter, especially under the calcarine cortex. A similar vascular malformation was found in the pons. The neuropathological changes in Unverricht-Lundborg's disease have been described as non-specific atrophy of various neuronal populations, especially medial thalamic nuclei and purkinje cells. The present case shows that the same clinical picture may be associated with multiple cerebral microvascular malformations and a disturbance in neuronal migration and organization which may be more generalized than appears in light microscopical sections.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1.9451118597776
keywords = cortex
(Clic here for more details about this article)

9/43. Corneal endothelial changes as a clinical diagnostic indicator of dentatorubropallidoluysian atrophy.

    OBJECTIVE: To present a rare case of patient diagnosed with dentatorubropallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) accompanied by corneal endothelial cell loss. methods: A 37-year-old man with choreoathetoid movement and cerebellar ataxia was diagnosed with DRPLA based on a dna analysis compared with that of healthy control subjects. We examined the best corrected visual acuity, color vision, light reflex, topography, corneal thickness, fundus, fluorescein angiograpic findings, the visual field, ERG, specular microscopy as well as MRI and serologic tests. RESULTS: The best corrected visual acuity was 20/20 in both eyes by Snellen chart, and the other ocular findings were within normal limits except for a significantly decreased corneal endothelial cell density, 876 cells/mm in the right eye and 941 cells/mm in the left eye. CONCLUSIONS: A patient with neurodegenerative disorders such as choreathetoid movement, myoclonic seizure, cerebellar ataxia, and dementia should be examined specifically by specular microscopy because corneal endothelial cell loss is the only clinical diagnostic indicator of DRPLA.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.08233221033361
keywords = visual
(Clic here for more details about this article)

10/43. A magnetoencephalographic study of astatic seizure in myoclonic astatic epilepsy.

    To study the pathophysiologic mechanism of astatic seizures in a patient with myoclonic astatic epilepsy of early childhood, ictal magnetoencephalography was recorded and the neuronal pathway involved was analyzed. The patient was a 12-year-old female who developed myoclonic and astatic seizures including nodding and sudden falling at the age of 4. The current source of spikes during nodding attacks was located in the bilateral frontal area with left predominance, possibly in the premotor cortex. Although we could not claim, on the basis of our findings, that myoclonic astatic epilepsy of early childhood is a type of focal epilepsy, it seems likely that the premotor cortex might be more excitable than other areas. Thus we speculate that the functionally altered premotor-reticulospinal tract which normally controls postural adjustment might play an important role in the generation of myoclonic astatic seizures. Furthermore, the underlying mechanism in the brainstem seems to be common, at least in part, for infantile spasms when considering the efficacy of synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone for nodding seizures.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1.9451118597776
keywords = cortex
(Clic here for more details about this article)
| Next ->


Leave a message about 'Epilepsies, Myoclonic'


We do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Click here for the full disclaimer.