Cases reported "Epilepsies, Myoclonic"

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1/69. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus in childhood localization-related epilepsy.

    PURPOSE: To report on three children with localization-related epilepsy who exhibited minor seizures (atypical absences, brief atonic, and myoclonic) and nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) consisting of these minor seizures, and to elucidate their significance. methods: We studied the electroclinical characteristics of these children. Ictal electroencephalograms (EEGs) of NCSE were evaluated by using simultaneous video-EEG-electromyogram (EMG) polygraphic recordings. RESULTS: All patients began to have partial seizures between the ages of 6 months and 2 years 7 months, with minor seizures appearing later, between the ages of 1 year 11 months and 6 years 6 months. These minor seizures evolved into NCSE. Complex partial seizures remained after suppression of the minor seizures. Interictal EEGs taken when the minor seizures appeared showed excessive diffuse epileptic discharges in addition to multifocal spike-waves. Before and after suppression of the minor seizures, focal epileptic discharges predominated on the EEGs. On ictal EEGs of brief atonic and myoclonic seizures, diffuse spike-wave and polyspike-wave bursts were detected. Ictal EEGs of the atypical absences revealed diffuse spike-wave bursts mixed with irregular high-voltage slow waves, often interspersed with brief atonic and myoclonic seizures. When atypical absences lasted for a long time, patients manifested NCSE. Polytherapy might be related to the occurrence of minor seizures and NCSE, because all patients were treated with polytherapy at their appearance, and simplification of antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy seemed to be effective. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that this NCSE is a type of atypical absence status which is an age-dependent, transient, electroclinical condition. The mechanism of occurrence of these minor seizures might be related to secondary bilateral synchrony.
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ranking = 1
keywords = status epilepticus, epilepticus, status
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2/69. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus in eyelid myoclonia with absences--evidence of provocation unrelated to photosensitivity.

    A 10-year old girl with eyelid myoclonia with absences (EMA) in whom nonconvulsive status epilepticus developed shortly after awakening is described. A video-polygraphic recording during the status showed the characteristic eye-closure provocation of eyelid myoclonia with upward deviation of the eyeballs and brief absences. Ictal EEG showed generalized polyspikes concomitant with eyelid myoclonia, while absences were accompanied by 3.5 Hz polyspike-wave complexes on EEG. This condition occurred even in total darkness as well as even after seizures precipitated by bright sunlight had been eliminated by medication. The present case suggests that the eye closure mechanism could be a more potent precipitating factor than photosensitivity in the pathophysiology of EMA.
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ranking = 1.0000061126875
keywords = status epilepticus, epilepticus, status, complex
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3/69. Myoclonic status epilepticus following high-dosage lamotrigine therapy.

    An 8-year-old girl with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome showed a partial reduction in seizure frequency when lamotrigine (LTG), 15 mg/kg per day, was added to clobazam (CLB) and vigabatrin (VGB). An increase in LTG dosage to 20 mg/kg per day produced no further improvement and was followed by myoclonic status epilepticus. The condition developed insidiously and ultimately became stable. Video-EEG polygraphy and jerk-locked back-averaged EEG demonstrated continuous myoclonus of cortical origin. Discontinuation of LTG resulted in rapid disappearance of clinical and electrophysiological manifestations of myoclonic status epilepticus. No episodes of myoclonus occurred in the subsequent 2 years, during which CLB and VGB were kept unchanged. The striking response to drug discontinuation suggests that LTG may have played a role in the precipitation of status, possibly within the context of paradoxical intoxication.
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ranking = 1.1997370116742
keywords = status epilepticus, epilepticus, status
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4/69. Subacute encephalopathy in a 5-year-old boy.

    A 5-year-old boy presented with an acute ataxia and altered mental status. Although he initially recovered from these symptoms, he presented a second time with myoclonus and seizures and rapidly became vegetative. cerebrospinal fluid studies, magnetic resonance imaging, and brain biopsy all confirmed the presence of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Despite courses of therapy with cimetidine, amantadine, ribavirin, and inosine, no clinical improvement has been seen. Clinicians need to be alert to the possibility of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis even in the vaccinated child in the appropriate clinical setting.
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ranking = 0.0013149416288271
keywords = status
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5/69. A neurodegenerative disorder with early myoclonic encephalopathy, retinal pigmentary degeneration and nephronophthisis.

    A female case of developmental arrest, early-onset seizures, retinal pigmentary degeneration, progressive central nervous symptoms and peripheral neuropathy, associated with progressive renal dysfunction, anemia and nephrotic syndrome, was presented. Her epileptic syndrome was possibly an early myoclonic encephalopathy, though neonatal seizures were not evident. Serial cranial MRIs showed progressive brain atrophy and a white matter change. Neuropathological examination revealed a neurodegenerative disease mainly involving the white matter with olivopontocerebellar degeneration. She also had the nephronophthisis-medullary cystic disease complex and an early stage of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Her grandaunts had renal diseases, one of whom died of renal failure in adolescence, and her father showed cerebellar symptoms since the middle age. All possible metabolic studies were negative. This case is similar to Senior-Loken syndrome, but distinct in terms of the severe and progressive neurological symptoms, suggestive of a new malignant syndrome with some inherent metabolic derangement affecting both the nervous system and the kidneys.
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ranking = 6.1126875012445E-6
keywords = complex
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6/69. Immunohistochemical demonstration of spinal ventral horn cells involvement in a case of "myoclonus epilepsy with ragged red fibers" (MERRF).

    OBJECTIVE: To detect mitochondrial lesions in the spinal cord from an autoptic case of myoclonus epilepsy with ragged-red fibers (MERRF) that harbored the A8344G mutation and was deemed to be free of pathological abnormalities in the spinal cord after conventional post-mortem examination. MATERIALS AND methods: antibodies against subunits of complex III and IV of the respiratory chain were used to perform immunohistochemical analysis on cervical, thoracic and lumbar sections of the spinal cord from the case of MERRF and from controls. Immunostaining was carried out by the avidin-biotin peroxidase complex (ABC) method. RESULTS: A selective decreased expression of subunit II of cytochrome c oxidase (COX-II) was found in all spinal cord sections from the patient. CONCLUSIONS: The immunohistochemical demonstration of mitochondrial lesions in the spinal ventral horn cells from this case with MERRF seems to be consistent with the results of many genetic studies pointing to a high and homogeneous distribution of mutant mtDNA in different neuronal populations of patients with this disease. The use of these immunological probes in the study of mitochondrial encephalomyopathies can increase both the resolution and the specificity of morphological observations in the central nervous system (CNS).
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ranking = 1.2225375002489E-5
keywords = complex
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7/69. Systemic lupus erythematosus and myoclonic epileptic manifestations.

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) frequently involves the central nervous system (CNS) and, in fact, epileptic manifestations may be one of the earliest symptoms of SLE. These early occurrences of epilepsy, however, can easily be misdiagnosed as indication of pure epileptic syndrome when the SLE diagnosis is still largely incomplete. We present a young girl who developed myoclonic photosensitive seizures at the onset of the illness, erroneously diagnosed as manifestation of a "pure" epileptic syndrome. Shortly after the onset of an anticonvulsant therapy (lamotrigine), there was a remarkable impairment of the general clinical condition: at that time a diagnosis of SLE was made and a specific treatment began. However, the seizures persisted and evolved toward status epilepticus which needed pentobarbitone therapy in an intensive care unit (ICU). After recovery, the girl gradually got better and during the 23 months of follow-up she received only corticosteroid therapy and did not experience seizures nor SLE relapses.
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ranking = 0.19973701167423
keywords = status epilepticus, epilepticus, status
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8/69. A case of post-anoxic encephalopathy with initial massive myoclonic status followed by alternating Jacksonian seizures.

    To contrast stimulus-sensitive generalized myoclonus with ensuing multifocal localized myoclonus in a patient with post-anoxic coma, we stressed the clinical as well as electroencephalographical differences between his initial generalized and subsequent focal myoclonus. While generalized myoclonus was presumably of extracortical origin and responsive to valproic acid, alternating Jacksonian seizures were definitely cortical and suppressed with phenytoin. These two different types of myoclonus should not be confused in post-anoxic coma.
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ranking = 0.0052597665153084
keywords = status
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9/69. Myoclonic seizures combined with partial seizures and probable pathophysiology of secondary bilateral synchrony.

    OBJECTIVE: We report on a patient who showed an unusual transition from complex partial seizures to a combination of myoclonic seizures and partial seizures, and then to isolated myoclonic seizures. The pathophysiological mechanism of the myoclonic seizures in this uncommon condition was studied. methods: The interhemispheric small time differences were estimated in the ictal EEG discharges of myoclonic seizures for differentiation between primary and secondary bilateral synchrony. The estimation was performed by coherence and phase analysis based on the two-dimensional autoregressive model. RESULTS: The estimated interhemispheric time differences were at most 27.4 ms. The ictal activity of the myoclonic seizures was suggested to originate from a cortical focus in the right hemisphere, which was also the origin of the partial seizures. CONCLUSION: The patient was considered to have an unusual type of myoclonic seizures with a probable pathophysiological mechanism of secondary bilateral synchrony.
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ranking = 6.1126875012445E-6
keywords = complex
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10/69. Neuroserpin mutation S52R causes neuroserpin accumulation in neurons and is associated with progressive myoclonus epilepsy.

    Mutations in the Neuroserpin gene have been reported to cause familial presenile dementia. We describe a new family in which the S52R Neuroserpin mutation is associated with progressive myoclonus epilepsy in 2 siblings. The proband presented myoclonus and epilepsy at age 24, his brother and mother presented a similar disorder when they were 25. A clinical diagnosis of progressive myoclonus epilepsy was made on the proband and his brother. skin and liver biopsies did not reveal the presence of cytological alterations in the proband. His neurological status worsened over the subsequent 19 yr during which he became demented and had uncontrollable seizures. He died at 43 yr of age from aspiration pneumonia. Neuropathologically, eosinophilic bodies, which were positive for periodic acid-Schiff and immunoreactive with antibodies against human neuroserpin, were present in the perikarya and cell processes of the neurons. They were found in large numbers in the cerebral cortex and substantia nigra and to a lesser extent, in most subcortical gray areas, spinal cord, and dorsal root ganglia. By electron microscopy, the intracytoplasmic bodies were contained within the membranes of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Occasionally neuroserpin immunopositivity was seen throughout the cytoplasm, even without the presence of well-defined bodies. Our study characterizes for the first time the neuropathologic phenotype associated with hereditary progressive myoclonus epilepsy caused by the S52R Neuroserpin mutation.
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ranking = 0.0013149416288271
keywords = status
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