Cases reported "Epilepsies, Myoclonic"

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11/390. A novel mutation in the mitochondrial dna transfer ribonucleic acidAsp gene in a child with myoclonic epilepsy and psychomotor regression.

    A novel A7543G mutation was found in the mitochondrial dna transfer ribonucleic acidAsp gene in an 11-year-old girl with myoclonic seizures, developmental delay, and severe behavioral problems. Muscle histochemistry failed to show any ragged red fibers or cytochrome c oxidase-negative fibers, and muscle biochemistry showed partial cytochrome c oxidase deficiency. The mutation was heteroplasmic in muscle, fibroblasts, and blood from the patient and in blood from other affected family members, and the proportion of mutant mitochondrial dna correlated with the severity of symptoms. ( info)

12/390. Idiopathic myoclonus in the oromandibular region during sleep: a possible source of confusion in sleep bruxism diagnosis.

    As part of a larger study, polysomnographic and audiovisual data were recorded over 2 nights in 41 subjects with a clinical diagnosis of sleep bruxism (SB). Electromyographic (EMG) events related to SB were scored according to standard criteria (Lavigne et al. J Dent Res 1996;75:546-552). Post hoc analysis revealed that rapid shock-like contractions with the characteristics of myoclonus in the jaw muscles were observed in four subjects. EMG bursts characterized as myoclonus were significantly shorter in duration than bursts classified as SB. None of the subjects had any history of myoclonus while awake. Myoclonic episodes were more frequent in sleep stages 1 and 2 than in REM. Half of the episodes contained one or two contractions whereas the other half had three or more repetitive contractions. SB and myoclonus coexisted in one subject. To rule out sleep epilepsy, full electroencephalogram montage was done in three subjects and no epileptic spikes were noted. Our results suggest that approximately 10% of subjects clinically diagnosed as SB could present oromandibular myoclonus during sleep. ( info)

13/390. Epileptic negative myoclonus induced by carbamazepine in a child with BECTS. Benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes.

    A 7-year-old female with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes developed epileptic negative myoclonus (ENM) seizures during carbamazepine (CBZ) treatment. She had experienced nocturnal partial seizures since 5 years of age. Interictal electroencephalography demonstrated typical rolandic discharges. Valproate was first initiated at 6 years of age, but the seizures were uncontrollable. carbamazepine was added and valproate withdrawn. The frequency of partial seizures did not decrease. Moreover, she had brief episodes of tone loss in each or both arms and eye blinking several weeks after CBZ introduction. Unilateral loss of arm tone corresponded to spike-and-wave discharges in the contralateral centrotemporal region, and a loss of tone in arms was associated with bilateral synchronous discharges. eye blinking was also related to bilateral synchronous discharges and classified as a myoclonic seizure. The ENM and myoclonic seizures disappeared soon after CBZ withdrawal. Therefore the authors concluded that CBZ induced the ENM and myoclonic seizures in this patient. CBZ sometimes induces generalized seizures in the treatment of partial epilepsy and generalized epilepsy. CBZ-induced ENM seizures should be considered when a brief lapse of tone appears during CBZ treatment. ( info)

14/390. A 5-month-old with intractable epilepsy.

    The nosology of early infantile seizures and epilepsy syndromes is controversial. There are two age-related early infantile epileptic encephalopathy syndromes that are characterized by early onset of spasms, a burst-suppression EEG pattern, poor response to treatment, and poor prognosis. This paper examines the early myoclonic epilepsies. ( info)

15/390. Subacute encephalopathy in a 5-year-old boy.

    A 5-year-old boy presented with an acute ataxia and altered mental status. Although he initially recovered from these symptoms, he presented a second time with myoclonus and seizures and rapidly became vegetative. cerebrospinal fluid studies, magnetic resonance imaging, and brain biopsy all confirmed the presence of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Despite courses of therapy with cimetidine, amantadine, ribavirin, and inosine, no clinical improvement has been seen. Clinicians need to be alert to the possibility of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis even in the vaccinated child in the appropriate clinical setting. ( info)

16/390. Two sibs with myoclonic epilepsy, congenital deafness, macular dystrophy, and psychiatric disorders.

    We present a family with four children born to second-cousin parents. Two of the children had myoclonic epilepsy, congenital deafness, a dystrophic pattern of the macular pigment epithelium, incomplete right bundle branch block, and psychiatric disorders appearing after fever episodes. Results of all laboratory investigations including mitochondrial dna analysis were normal. Despite the fact that this condition resembles one reported by Latham and Munro in 1937, it is possible that we might be reporting on a new autosomal recessive syndrome. ( info)

17/390. epilepsy with myoclonic absences with early onset: a follow-up study.

    We studied six children (four girls and two boys) suffering from cryptogenic myoclonic absence seizures with early onset. The age at onset of the seizures ranged between 6 and 27.8 months (mean age /- SD: 18.5 /-12.4 months). The neurologic evaluation was normal in all patients at the first hospital admission. After the diagnosis, we followed up all children for at least 5 years. At the end of follow-up, two of these patients (a girl and a boy) showed severe mental retardation, a high number (from one to three per day) of seizures, and persistent pathologic electroencephalograms. The other patients showed normal electroencephalograms: all of them were seizure free and without mental retardation. The two patients with mental retardation have been treated with polytherapy. In all other children we used valproate alone successfully. Our data suggest that myoclonic absence seizures with early onset can have a good long-term prognosis. Valproate is a useful anticonvulsant drug in these patients. Mental retardation is present only in patients with poor seizure control. ( info)

18/390. Successful treatment of normeperidine neurotoxicity by hemodialysis.

    Normeperidine, a major metabolite of meperidine, is half as potent as meperidine as an analgesic but two to three times more potent as a convulsant. Renal failure significantly increases the plasma half-life of normeperidine. The intensity of the central nervous system excitation is highly correlated with the plasma concentration of normeperidine. Moreover, normeperidine toxicity is not reversed by naloxone, which may exacerbate it. We report a patient with end-stage renal disease undergoing maintenance continuous cycler peritoneal dialysis who had been receiving meperidine for pain control. The patient subsequently developed myoclonic contractions and a grand mal seizure. The patient was successfully treated with hemodialysis (using an F8 dialyzer) for presumed normeperidine-induced seizure. During hemodialysis, normeperidine average blood clearance was 73 mL/min, average plasma clearance was 50 mL/min, and average percentage of plasma extraction was 24%. There also was a 26% reduction in plasma concentration of normeperidine over 3 hours of hemodialysis. In conclusion, our findings suggest that hemodialysis may be used effectively for treating patients with suspected normeperidine-induced neurotoxicity. ( info)

19/390. The role of plastic surgery in the management of airway obstruction.

    A patient with the rare genetic disease of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is presented. The phenotypic presentation included localized, idiosyncratic lipodystrophy that caused life-threatening respiratory obstruction. Plastic surgical excision and suction-assisted lipoplasty of huge deposits of fat and skin led to marked improvement in patient posture and ventilation. This rare disorder, stages of treatment, and salient references are discussed. ( info)

20/390. Severe neuroexcitatory symptoms after anaesthesia--with focus on propofol anaesthesia.

    Delayed neuroexcitatory symptoms after an uneventful anaesthesia are uncommon, although described in many reports. We want to report on two cases. The first patient developed muscle hypertonicity, jerky movements and unconsciousness after an uneventful anaesthesia with propofol, and later the same thing happened after anaesthesia with thiopentone. The second patient developed similar symptoms after an uneventful anaesthesia with propofol, but she never recovered completely after this and is now severely disabled. A search of the literature and the Swedish adverse drug reactions register revealed many similar cases. In both our patients the causal relationship between propofol and the neuroexcitatory symptoms remains uncertain, but we want to alert readers about this possible adverse reaction. ( info)
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