Cases reported "Epilepsies, Partial"

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1/150. Cognitive deterioration associated with focal cortical dysplasia.

    Surgery for an area of focal cortical dysplasia in a critical region is reported in a right-handed female manifesting intractable focal epilepsy and verbal cognitive deterioration. She developed the first seizure at 2 years of age and was treated with phenytoin and zonisamide, with good control until 10 years of age. Although seizures did not occur at 9 years of age, she manifested dyscalculia, right-left disorientation, and finger agnosia, and N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) revealed focal hypoperfusion in the left parietal lobe. At 11 years of age, she developed regular nocturnal seizures and gradually lost the ability to understand the meaning of sentences. Verbal IQ declined from 94 to 63, and the area of hypoperfusion detected by interictal N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine SPECT spread over the left parietotemporal lobes. magnetic resonance imaging revealed focal cortical dysplasia mainly in the left parietal lobe, and ictal technetium-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimer SPECT images demonstrated an area of hyperperfusion around the focal cortical dysplasia, including the left precentral gyrus. Because of the overlap between the epileptogenic and functional cortex, the authors concluded that cortical resection, including focal cortical dysplasia, was inappropriate in this patient.
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keywords = cortex
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2/150. Redundancy gains for visual search after complete commissurotomy.

    Redundant-targets effects (RTE) for visual search were investigated in 2 commissurotomy patients (L.B., N.G.). L.B., who showed no evidence of visual interhemispheric transfer, exhibited a paradoxical enhancement of the redundancy gain in the bilateral compared with the within-hemifield redundant-targets conditions, whereas N.G., who showed evidence of interhemispheric transfer of visual information, exhibited no enhancement of the bilateral redundancy gain. When only uncrossed responses were considered, both bilateral and within-field RTE were evident only when attentional demands were high. Bilateral redundant targets led to stronger gains, some indicative of coactivation, in the slower response hand. The authors suggest that the enhancement of the bilateral RTE comes about by neural coactivation, which is especially pronounced when the slower hemisphere elicits the response.
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ranking = 0.094791182219745
keywords = visual
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3/150. Somatomotor fMRI in the pre-surgical evaluation of a case of focal epilepsy.

    A child with intractable partial epilepsy who was found to have a focal lesion in the motor cortex underwent detailed pre-surgical and intraoperative investigations which enabled curative surgery without morbidity by minimizing a targeted resection. The pre-surgical assessment included mapping motor cortical function with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). This was subsequently correlated with the results of pre-surgical and intraoperative invasive corticography.
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keywords = cortex
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4/150. Partial seizure with aphasic speech arrest caused by watching a popular animated TV program.

    On the evening of December 16, 1997, about 700 children across japan were hospitalized because of convulsive seizures or vomiting experienced while watching a popular animated TV program that included blue and red stimuli that alternated at 12 flashes per second. In one case, an 11-year-old girl developed a hallucination in the right visual field and a subsequent cramp on the right side of her face, with aphasic speech arrest. She had no history of seizures. Her electroencephalogram (EEG) showed normal background activity and no epileptiform discharges. Intermittent photic stimulation provoked a photoparoxysmal response. Her main clinical manifestation was a TV-induced left occipital lobe seizure spreading toward the left inferior frontal lobe. This suggested a functional link from the occipital lobe to the frontal operculum.
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ranking = 0.013541597459964
keywords = visual
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5/150. Reversibility of vigabratin-induced visual-field defect.

    We report a girl with epilepsy aged 10 years receiving vigabatrin and complaining of bumping into objects and presenting visual-field constriction, which disappeared after vigabatrin withdrawal.
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ranking = 0.067707987299818
keywords = visual
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6/150. Periictal diffusion-weighted imaging in a case of lesional epilepsy.

    PURPOSE: diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) has been used for the early diagnosis of acute ischemic lesions in humans and in animal models of focal status epilepticus. We hypothesized that DWI may be a sensitive, noninvasive tool for the localization of the epileptogenic area during the periictal period. methods: A periictal DWI study was performed on a 35-year-old patient during focal status epilepticus with repetitive prolonged focal motor seizures originating from a lesion in the right frontal lobe. DWI results were analyzed visually and by calculating apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps. RESULTS: On DWI, a single area of signal increase (decrease in ADC) was found in the region of focal electrocorticographic seizures that was mapped intraoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: Ictal/postictal DWI may be a useful technique for seizure localization in patients with lesional epilepsy.
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ranking = 0.013541597459964
keywords = visual
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7/150. Partial seizures manifesting as apnea only in an adult.

    PURPOSE: Although several cases of apneic seizures have been reported in neonates, epileptic seizures presenting as apnea only in adults are very rare. We present a case report of a 19-year-old man with viral encephalitis and frequent episodes of apneic seizures. methods: Prolonged electroencephalograms (EEGs), respiratory monitorings, and imaging including ictal-interictal subtraction single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) coregistered with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed. RESULTS: Ictal EEGs recorded during apneic episodes showed repetitive sharp waves or rhythmic theta activity arising from the left or right independent bitemporal region. Ictal SPECT was performed during one episode of apnea that showed ictal EEG discharges arising from the left posterior temporal area. Ictal-interictal subtraction SPECT coregistered with MRI revealed that the seizures originated from the left, posterior, midlateral temporal cortex. CONCLUSIONS: Previous studies with ictal EEG or brain stimulation suggest that apneic seizures might be mediated through the limbic and associated cortical systems. Our study reports on a very rare case of partial seizures with apnea only in an adult patient and is supported by ictal EEG and ictal-interictal subtraction SPECT coregistered with MRI.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cortex
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8/150. Tests of the predictive value of EEG recording from within the brain in the partial epilepsies.

    The EEG, as recorded from electrodes in deep structures of the brain in cases of intractable seizures, has been surveyed to assess its predictive value in the partial epilepsies. In addition to scalp EEGs and depth EEGs in control situations, ictal recordings of tape-recorded seizures and the interictal enhancement of EEG signs by benzodiazepines have been analyzed. All results have been quantified by computer analysis. The predictive value of the EEGs has been assessed in 2 ways: (1) by comparison with the pathology found after surgery and (2) by the long-term clinical status of the patient postoperatively. Twelve cases with lesions found in limbic structures and 6 with cortical involvement are reported. In the latter cases secondary firing of the hippocampus, with its low threshold for seizures, frequently followed, though more rapidly than could be timed by visual inspection alone. Bilateral signs both in scalp EEGs and in depth were a common finding in the cases with limbic lesions. In those patients with marked clinical improvement, follow-up computerized studies of pre- and post-operative scalp EEGs revealed normalization in both hemispheres, leading to the proposal that a focus of defective tissue may impair neuronal function in widely distant regions of the brain.
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ranking = 0.013541597459964
keywords = visual
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9/150. Late-onset isolated gelastic epilepsy secondary to entrapment of the right temporal horn.

    The case is reported of a 70 year-old woman with isolated gelastic seizures (GS) secondary to a rare form of focal obstructive hydrocephalus, called entrapment of the lateral horn. Laughing attacks started five years after conservative intracranial surgery for a giant basilar aneurysm. Serial neuro-imaging studies revealed a progressive cystic enlargement of the right temporal horn, damaging the baso-lateral temporal cortex. An ictal EEG recording confirmed the epileptic nature of laughing attacks, and showed that the epileptiform activity originated in the right temporal lobe. Complete seizure control was achieved with current doses of diphenilhydantoin. Analysis of this and other previously reported cases, indicate that symptomatic GS may originate in multiple sites of both cerebral hemispheres, although related to the limbic system. The fact that this case exhibited isolated GS stresses the importance of the baso-lateral temporal cortex in the genesis of this type of seizures.
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ranking = 2
keywords = cortex
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10/150. temporal lobe focal cortical dysplasia: MRI imaging using FLAIR shows lesions consistent with neoplasia.

    Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD), a form of neuronal migration disorder, is a malformative lesion of the neocortex that occurs during development of the brain. It can cause partial and generalized epilepsy. seizures occur at an early age and are often resistant to medication. Surgical resection has been found to be beneficial in these patients. Dual pathology, in the form of mesial temporal sclerosis, has been associated with FCD. At the Children's Hospital of Eastern ontario, four patients with temporal lobe FCD have recently, been identified. This paper discusses how these children presented and how they were managed, with particular emphasis on their MRI findings and differential diagnoses. In three of the four patients neuroimaging studies showed lesions consistent with a neoplastic process because of the large volume and mass effect. Radiologically, FCD may mimic the MRI appearance of tumors, such as dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, gangliogliomas, oligodendrogliomas, and astrocytomas. These lesions are best visualized on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging, a technique that has recently become applicable in the clinical setting, as we help demonstrate in this series. With better MRI capability, milder forms of FCD and microdysplasia may be distinguished.
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ranking = 1.01354159746
keywords = cortex, visual
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