Cases reported "Epilepsies, Partial"

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1/187. Transient paralytic attacks of obscure nature: the question of non-convulsive seizure paralysis.

    Eleven patients with transient paralytic attacks of obscure nature are described. paralysis could involve face or leg alone, face and hand, or face, arm and leg. The duration varied from two minutes to one day. Four patients had brain tumors, six probably had brain infarcts, and one a degenerative process. The differential diagnosis included TIAs, migraine accompaniments, and seizures. In the absence of good evidence for the first two, the cases are discussed from the standpoint of possibly representing nonconvulsive seizure paralysis (ictal paralysis, inhibitory seizure paralysis or somatic inhibitory seizure). Because of the difficulty in defining seizures as well as TIAs and migraine in their atypical variations, a firm conclusion concerning the mechanisms of the spells was not attained. Two cases of the hypertensive amaurosis-seizure syndrome have been added as further examples of ictal deficits.
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ranking = 1
keywords = non-convulsive
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2/187. Reactivation of herpes virus after surgery for epilepsy in a pediatric patient with mesial temporal sclerosis: case report.

    OBJECTIVE: This case report is presented to raise the awareness of the potential risk of reactivation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis after intracranial surgery. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: The case of an 8-year-old male patient who suffered a reactivation of HSV encephalitis after undergoing amygdalohippocampectomy for complex partial seizures is reported. This patient had previously contracted HSV 1 meningoencephalitis at the age of 16 months. Six years later, a left amygdalohippocampectomy was proposed after the development of intractable partial epilepsy associated with left mesial temporal lesions. During the postoperative period, the patient suffered severe clinical deterioration with partial status epilepticus, aphasia, and hyperthermia, which resolved after intensive antiepileptic treatment supported by acyclovir. CONCLUSION: We advise prophylactic pre-, peri-, and postoperative treatment with acyclovir for patients with known histories of HSV encephalitis who undergo intracranial procedures.
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ranking = 15.594968046816
keywords = partial status epilepticus, status epilepticus, epilepticus, partial status, status, simple, complex
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3/187. Psychiatric presentation of epilepsia cursiva.

    Coarse brain disease can first present as a behavioural or psychiatric disorder. Partial seizures with complex symptomatology (psychomotor or temporal lobe epilepsy) may offer particular difficulties in differential diagnosis from the "functional psychoses". The authors report a case of "running epilepsy" (epilepsia cursiva), that first presented as a behavioural problem, and review the literature on this rare form of psychomotor epilepsy.
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ranking = 0.00016557328381542
keywords = complex
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4/187. plasma exchange in Rasmussen's encephalitis.

    The authors observed a 4-year-old girl who has Rasmussen's encephalitis. She started with frequent localized and generalized seizures. Standard antiepileptic treatment was almost ineffective. The frequency of the generalized seizures decreased, but the myoclonic jerks of the left part of the body persisted. An EEG showed partial status epilepticus. The results of the CT scan were normal. antibodies to viruses were absent from the blood and cerebrospinal fluid. An MR scan showed a T2-weighted hypersignal zone in the right frontal region. Intravenous bolus injections of corticosteroids and drips of immunoglobulins were inefficient, and we started plasma exchanges which have continued for 9 months. The clinical state stabilized, and the images on the MR scan improved, but the results of the EEG did not improve. The authors discuss the effect of the plasma exchange, the use of which is questionable in this disease.
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ranking = 15.594619488544
keywords = partial status epilepticus, status epilepticus, epilepticus, partial status, status
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5/187. A divided mind: observations on the conscious properties of the separated hemispheres.

    Each cerebral hemisphere in Patient O.S., a callosum-sectioned patient, appears to possess mental properties deserving of conscious status. The observations seem to answer many questions concerning the issue of whether the mechanisms of consciousness can be split and doubled by split-brain surgery. As P.S. is the first split-brain patient clearly to possess double conscious processes as well as the first with extensive bilateral linguistic skills, the observations suggest that the special nature of human conscious experience is closely tied to linguistic processes.
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ranking = 0.035643081309887
keywords = status
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6/187. carbamazepine withdrawal in children with previous symptomatic partial epilepsy: effects on neuropsychologic function.

    Neurocognitive performance was evaluated in seven children with symptomatic partial epilepsy prior to, and at least 12 months after, discontinuation of carbamazepine. The patients treated with carbamazepine monotherapy were seizure-free for at least 2 years and without electroencephalographic anomalies for at least 1 year. Results indicated that carbamazepine at therapeutic levels does not affect intellectual, memory, or attentional functions, or more complex frontal functions. Nevertheless, after therapy withdrawal scores on frontal function tests used in this study improved significantly. This suggests that these functions could have been better without carbamazepine therapy. The fact that carbamazepine decreases neuron membrane excitability and could reduce the information circuity, particularly in the frontal areas, is offered as a possible explanation. Further studies on larger samples using the same design are required to validate these results.
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ranking = 0.00016557328381542
keywords = complex
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7/187. diagnosis of subtle focal dysplastic lesions: curvilinear reformatting from three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Focal cortical dysplasia is a frequent cause of medically intractable partial epilepsy. These lesions are being increasingly identified by high quality images provided by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), resulting in improved seizure control of surgically treated patients. Small dysplastic lesions are often missed by conventional MRI methods. The identification of subtle structural abnormalities by rectilinear slices is often limited by the complex convolutional pattern of the brain. We developed a method of curvilinear reformatting of three-dimensional MRI data that improves the anatomical display of the gyral structure of the hemispheric convexities. It also reduces the asymmetric sampling of gray-white matter that may lead to false-positive results. We present 5 patients in whom conventional two-dimensional and three-dimensional MRI with multiplanar reformatting was initially considered normal. Subsequent studies using curvilinear reformatting identified lesions in all. Four patients underwent surgery with histological diagnosis of focal cortical dysplasia. Three patients are seizure-free and 1 had significant improvement in seizure control. These results indicate that an increase in the detection of subtle focal dysplastic lesions may be accomplished when one improves the anatomical display of the brain gyral structure by performing curvilinear reformatting.
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ranking = 0.00016557328381542
keywords = complex
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8/187. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus in childhood localization-related epilepsy.

    PURPOSE: To report on three children with localization-related epilepsy who exhibited minor seizures (atypical absences, brief atonic, and myoclonic) and nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) consisting of these minor seizures, and to elucidate their significance. methods: We studied the electroclinical characteristics of these children. Ictal electroencephalograms (EEGs) of NCSE were evaluated by using simultaneous video-EEG-electromyogram (EMG) polygraphic recordings. RESULTS: All patients began to have partial seizures between the ages of 6 months and 2 years 7 months, with minor seizures appearing later, between the ages of 1 year 11 months and 6 years 6 months. These minor seizures evolved into NCSE. Complex partial seizures remained after suppression of the minor seizures. Interictal EEGs taken when the minor seizures appeared showed excessive diffuse epileptic discharges in addition to multifocal spike-waves. Before and after suppression of the minor seizures, focal epileptic discharges predominated on the EEGs. On ictal EEGs of brief atonic and myoclonic seizures, diffuse spike-wave and polyspike-wave bursts were detected. Ictal EEGs of the atypical absences revealed diffuse spike-wave bursts mixed with irregular high-voltage slow waves, often interspersed with brief atonic and myoclonic seizures. When atypical absences lasted for a long time, patients manifested NCSE. Polytherapy might be related to the occurrence of minor seizures and NCSE, because all patients were treated with polytherapy at their appearance, and simplification of antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy seemed to be effective. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that this NCSE is a type of atypical absence status which is an age-dependent, transient, electroclinical condition. The mechanism of occurrence of these minor seizures might be related to secondary bilateral synchrony.
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ranking = 35.397392621502
keywords = status epilepticus, epilepticus, status
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9/187. Development of focal chronic epilepsy following focal status epilepticus in adult patients.

    In several experimental models, status epilepticus (SE) leads to secondary brain hyperexcitability and epileptogenesis. In humans, such phenomena have been rarely demonstrated, particularly in cases of SE involving the neocortical structures. We report a 36 year old woman that presented partial SE in May 1991 involving the right cerebral hemisphere. The patient was then treated in the intensive care unit with artificial ventilation and anesthesia by pentobarbital and clometiazole. MRI showed transient right parietal and temporal posterior cortical hyperintensity. The cause of SE was not determined. Three months later, the patient developed partial complex seizures with aura characterized by vertigo, nausea and auditory hallucination. Ictal video/EEG recording showed a clear right temporal posterior onset of the discharges. We speculate that status epilepticus created the lesions which subsequently caused the focal chronic epilepsy.
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ranking = 42.434265021514
keywords = status epilepticus, epilepticus, status, complex
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10/187. Two cases of nonconvulsive status epilepticus in association with tiagabine therapy.

    We report two patients with intractable partial seizures who developed generalized nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) after receiving tiagabine (TGB). Neither had a history of absence seizures or generalized epileptic discharges on prior EEG monitoring. Clinicians need to be aware of a possible association between TGB and NCSE.
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ranking = 35.361749540192
keywords = status epilepticus, epilepticus, status
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