Cases reported "Epilepsies, Partial"

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11/187. Unique desmoplastic cerebral tumor in a patient with complex partial seizures.

    Primary brain tumors with prominent desmoplasia include the gliofibroma, desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma (DIG), pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA), and desmoplastic cerebral astrocytoma. In the present report, we describe unusual pathological appearances in two successive resections of a left temporal tumor in a patient with complex partial seizures. Both tumors showed focal astroglial and very prominent neuronal differentiation. In the first resection at age 11 years, the tumor showed only focal desmoplastic areas and prominent neuronal differentiation with bizarre atypical giant cells. In the second resection at age 14 years, the morphology was dramatically different. Now the tumor showed marked desmoplasia with tumor cells coexpressing neuronal and glial markers. Electron microscopy showed prominent neuronal differentiation in both resections and presence of basal lamina around tumor cells. Our case represents a unique example of an extraordinary degree of neuronal differentiation in a desmoplastic cerebral tumor. While cellular pleomorphism in a desmoplastic tumor traditionally suggests the diagnosis of PXA, we wish to underscore that many cells exhibiting marked cytologic atypia may in fact be of neuronal rather than of glial origin as in our case.
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ranking = 1
keywords = complex
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12/187. Focal status epilepticus: clinical features and significance of different EEG patterns.

    PURPOSE: Focal status epilepticus is typically diagnosed by the observation of continuous jerking motor activity, but many other manifestations have been described. EEG evidence of focal status may take several forms, and their interpretation is controversial. We detailed the clinical spectrum of focal status in patients diagnosed by both clinical deficit and EEG criteria and contrasted clinical manifestations in patients with different EEG patterns. methods: patients were diagnosed with a neurologic deficit and discrete recurrent focal electrographic seizures or rapid, continuous focal epileptiform discharges on EEG. Clinical findings were determined by chart review. RESULTS: Of 41 patients with focal status, acute vascular disease was the cause in 21; 10 of 41 had exacerbations of prior epilepsy. A variety of clinical seizure types occurred, both before and after the EEG diagnosis, but the diagnosis was not expected in 28 patients before the EEG. Three had no obvious clinical seizures. Focal motor seizures and an abnormal mental status were the most common manifestations at the time of the EEG. With antiepileptic drugs, almost all had control of clinical seizures, and most improved in mental status. patients with rapid continuous focal epileptiform discharges were nearly identical in presentation, likelihood of diagnosis, subsequent seizures, response to medication, and outcome to those with discrete seizures on EEG. CONCLUSIONS: Focal status epilepticus may be seen with a wide variety of clinical seizure types or without obvious clinical seizures. The diagnosis is often delayed or missed and should be considered after strokes or clinical seizures when patients do not stabilize or improve as expected. The diagnosis should be made equally whether patients have discrete electrographic seizures or continuous rapid focal epileptiform discharges on the EEG, and the same response to medications and outcome should be anticipated for the two groups.
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ranking = 51472.452406372
keywords = status epilepticus, epilepticus, status
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13/187. Ictal video-EEG recording of three partial seizures in a patient with the benign infantile convulsions associated with mild gastroenteritis.

    PURPOSE: In infants, benign convulsions can be triggered by febrile illness or mild diarrhea such as rotavirus gastroenteritis. The triggering mechanism of these convulsions is still unknown. In spite of several reports concerning clinical features, the ictal EEG recordings were rarely analyzed by a video-EEG monitoring system. To reveal a clue for the triggering mechanism of these convulsions, we analyzed the correlation of clinical manifestations and the EEG discharges during the ictal events and compared with previous reports. methods: The ictal EEG of a cluster of three afebrile convulsions associated with mild gastroenteritis was recorded by an EEG closed-circuit TV (EEG-CCTV) monitoring system in a 6-month-old healthy female infant. RESULTS: All seizures began as complex partial seizures (CPSs), which exhibited a motionless stare with or without leftward deviation of both eyes, and evolved to secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures (SGTCSs) for approximately 90 s. Each of three ictal discharges began from the right occipital, right centroparietotemporal, and left occipital regions, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Although initiating sites of ictal discharges of benign infantile convulsions associated with mild gastroenteritis (BICE) were previously reported to be variable among patients, these results indicated that those differ among seizures even in a same infant.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = complex
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14/187. Periictal diffusion-weighted imaging in a case of lesional epilepsy.

    PURPOSE: diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) has been used for the early diagnosis of acute ischemic lesions in humans and in animal models of focal status epilepticus. We hypothesized that DWI may be a sensitive, noninvasive tool for the localization of the epileptogenic area during the periictal period. methods: A periictal DWI study was performed on a 35-year-old patient during focal status epilepticus with repetitive prolonged focal motor seizures originating from a lesion in the right frontal lobe. DWI results were analyzed visually and by calculating apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps. RESULTS: On DWI, a single area of signal increase (decrease in ADC) was found in the region of focal electrocorticographic seizures that was mapped intraoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: Ictal/postictal DWI may be a useful technique for seizure localization in patients with lesional epilepsy.
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ranking = 17085.727226193
keywords = status epilepticus, epilepticus, status
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15/187. Detection of an epileptic mirror focus after oral application of clonidine.

    We report detection of an epileptic mirror focus approximately 2 h after administration of oral clonidine 150 micrograms in a patient with an intractable complex partial seizure disorder. The specific epileptic activity was documented by electroencephalographic (EEG) and magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings. The case illustrates a possible role of clonidine in facilitating specific discharges.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = complex
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16/187. Hemodynamic changes in simple partial epilepsy: a functional MRI study.

    We performed functional MRI (fMRI) on a patient with a mass lesion while she happened to experience a simple partial seizure. We used regional T2* signal changes to localize seizure-related hemodynamic changes. Seizure activity was associated with changes in MR signal in different regions that showed sequential activation and deactivation. Our study has shown that epileptic activity leads to changes in cerebral hemodynamics. In selected patients, therefore, it might be possible to use fMRI as a noninvasive tool to detect and investigate cortical patterns of activation associated with seizure activity.
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ranking = 1.1051601086062
keywords = simple
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17/187. Planned ictal FDG PET imaging for localization of extratemporal epileptic foci.

    PURPOSE: This work demonstrates the feasibility of planned ictal positron emission tomography (PET) with [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose (FDG) for localization of epileptic activity in patients with frequent partial seizures of extratemporal origin. methods: Ictal PET imaging was performed in four patients (two men and two women, ages 28-61) with continuous or very frequent (every 3-15 min) partial seizures. All patients had abnormalities apparent on magnetic resonance (MR) or computed tomographic (CT) imaging, two with extensive brain lesions that precluded precise localization of the seizure focus with interictal PET or single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) imaging. RESULTS: Ictal PET imaging demonstrated a restricted area of focal hypermetabolism concordant with surface electroencephalographic (EEG) recording in all cases. The PET images were registered to MR imaging data for further anatomic localization of hypermetabolic regions in three cases. The ictal PET data were used to guide neurosurgical intervention in one case. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that planned ictal PET imaging may be a useful and potentially superior approach to ictal SPECT for identifying the epileptic focus in a selected group of patients with continuous or frequent simple partial seizures.
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ranking = 0.22103202172124
keywords = simple
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18/187. Bilateral periventricular and subcortical heterotopia in a man with refractory epilepsy.

    PURPOSE: To report a novel malformation in a male subject with refractory partial seizures. methods: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and data reformatting in a subject referred for management of partial seizures. RESULTS: The patient had four distinct partial seizure types, without learning disability. MRI demonstrated the novel association of bilateral laminar subcortical heterotopia, bilateral temporal periventricular heterotopia, and hippocampal malformation. CONCLUSIONS: This previously unreported complex bilateral neocortical and archicortical malformation in a male patient cannot be explained by known genetic causes of heterotopia, raising the possibility of a novel gene involved in brain formation.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = complex
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19/187. Benign partial epilepsy in infancy and early childhood with vertex spikes and waves during sleep: a new epileptic form.

    International epilepsy classification includes different epileptic syndromes with favourable outcomes in paediatric age, both partial and generalised. This is true in childhood while no partial benign forms are accepted in infancy. In 1987, Watanabe first described a new entity and he defined it as 'benign complex partial epilepsies in infancy'. In 1992, Vigevano referred similar but familial cases whose seizures had secondary generalisation. Both these forms had no interictal EEG abnormalities neither awake nor during sleep. This article presents a survey of 12 cases of partial epilepsy with favourable outcome differing from Watanabe and Vigevano's cases, both for the presence of interictal EEG abnormalities only during sleep and for seizure picture. All our patients are neurologically and neuroradiologically normal. Psychomotor development is unremarkable. Age onset range is 13-30 months. All cases present characteristic spikes and waves during slow-sleep in vertex cerebral areas. Awake EEG is always normal, at follow-up too. Our cases have such homogeneous electroclinical features as to hypothesise a new partial idiopathic epileptic syndrome with favourable outcome in infancy and early childhood. We propose to define it as 'benign partial epilepsy in infancy and early childhood with vertex spikes and waves' (BVSE).
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = complex
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20/187. Comparison of auras and triggering factors in epilepsy.

    case reports of five patients are presented, each with a specific aura at the onset of the seizures. All of these patients' had seizures during the waking state. Their auras were carefully replicated and presented to the patients under various conditions. The presentation of the auras evoked neither clinical nor EEG evidence of seizures. A sixth patient had seizures only when asleep which were preceded by vivid nightmares. Since the seizures occurred only when the patient was asleep, we considered that the seizures could be reflex in nature and evoked by a dream. Replication of the dream, however, did not evoke clinical or EEG evidence of epilepsy. The dreams, therefore, were auras or a part of the seizure complex.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = complex
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