Cases reported "Epilepsies, Partial"

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1/130. Central pain as a manifestation of partial epileptic seizures.

    Central pain of epileptic etiology is very rare. The frequency of painful sensations in epileptic seizures varies between 0.3 and 2.8%. We report a patient with short-lasting painful attacks in the right arm. Changes in the electroencephalography (EEG) and the effective treatment with anticonvulsants in contrast to the therapeutic failure of analgesics, lead to the diagnosis of partial epilepsy with painful seizures. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was normal, whereas a postcentral parietal site of seizure origin involving the secondary somatosensory area was suggested by electroencephalographic findings. The literature is reviewed for cases with pain as the sole or predominant symptom of epileptic seizures.
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2/130. plasma exchange in Rasmussen's encephalitis.

    The authors observed a 4-year-old girl who has Rasmussen's encephalitis. She started with frequent localized and generalized seizures. Standard antiepileptic treatment was almost ineffective. The frequency of the generalized seizures decreased, but the myoclonic jerks of the left part of the body persisted. An EEG showed partial status epilepticus. The results of the CT scan were normal. antibodies to viruses were absent from the blood and cerebrospinal fluid. An MR scan showed a T2-weighted hypersignal zone in the right frontal region. Intravenous bolus injections of corticosteroids and drips of immunoglobulins were inefficient, and we started plasma exchanges which have continued for 9 months. The clinical state stabilized, and the images on the MR scan improved, but the results of the EEG did not improve. The authors discuss the effect of the plasma exchange, the use of which is questionable in this disease.
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3/130. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus in childhood localization-related epilepsy.

    PURPOSE: To report on three children with localization-related epilepsy who exhibited minor seizures (atypical absences, brief atonic, and myoclonic) and nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) consisting of these minor seizures, and to elucidate their significance. methods: We studied the electroclinical characteristics of these children. Ictal electroencephalograms (EEGs) of NCSE were evaluated by using simultaneous video-EEG-electromyogram (EMG) polygraphic recordings. RESULTS: All patients began to have partial seizures between the ages of 6 months and 2 years 7 months, with minor seizures appearing later, between the ages of 1 year 11 months and 6 years 6 months. These minor seizures evolved into NCSE. Complex partial seizures remained after suppression of the minor seizures. Interictal EEGs taken when the minor seizures appeared showed excessive diffuse epileptic discharges in addition to multifocal spike-waves. Before and after suppression of the minor seizures, focal epileptic discharges predominated on the EEGs. On ictal EEGs of brief atonic and myoclonic seizures, diffuse spike-wave and polyspike-wave bursts were detected. Ictal EEGs of the atypical absences revealed diffuse spike-wave bursts mixed with irregular high-voltage slow waves, often interspersed with brief atonic and myoclonic seizures. When atypical absences lasted for a long time, patients manifested NCSE. Polytherapy might be related to the occurrence of minor seizures and NCSE, because all patients were treated with polytherapy at their appearance, and simplification of antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy seemed to be effective. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that this NCSE is a type of atypical absence status which is an age-dependent, transient, electroclinical condition. The mechanism of occurrence of these minor seizures might be related to secondary bilateral synchrony.
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4/130. Stereotactic radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of gelastic seizures associated with hypothalamic hamartoma. Case report.

    The author presents the case of a patient with gelastic seizures associated with a hypothalamic hamartoma, in whom partial resection of the hamartoma followed by temporal lobectomy and orbitofrontal corticectomy failed to reduce the seizures. Subsequent stereotactic radiofrequency ablation of the hamartoma resulted in progressive improvement in the seizure disorder during a 28-month follow-up period. There is support in the literature for the concept that gelastic seizures originate directly from the hamartoma; however, direct surgical approaches to these lesions pose significant risks. It is proposed that the technique of radiofrequency ablation provides a minimally invasive, low-risk approach for the treatment of hypothalamic hamartomas.
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5/130. [11C](R)-PK11195 positron emission tomography imaging of activated microglia in vivo in Rasmussen's encephalitis.

    This study was designed to explore the feasibility of PET using [11C](R)-PK11195 as an in vivo marker of activated microglia/brain macrophages for the assessment of neuroinflammation in Rasmussen's encephalitis (RE). [11C](R)-PK11195 PET was carried out in four normal subjects, two patients with histologically confirmed RE, and three patients with clinically stable hippocampal sclerosis and low seizure frequency. Binding potential maps showing specific binding of [11C](R)-PK11195 were generated for each subject. Regional binding potential values were calculated for anatomically defined regions of interest after coregistration to and spatial transformation into the subjects' own MRI. In one patient with RE who underwent hemispherectomy, the resected, paraffin-embedded brain tissue was stained with an antibody (CR3/43) that labels activated human microglia. Whereas specific binding of [11C](R)-PK11195 in clinically stable hippocampal sclerosis was similar to that in normal brain, patients with RE showed a focal and diffuse increase in binding throughout the affected hemisphere. In RE, [11C](R)-PK11195 PET can reveal in vivo the characteristic, unilateral pattern known from postmortem neuropathologic study. PET imaging of activated microglia/brain macrophages offers a tool for investigation of a range of brain diseases where neuroinflammation is a component and in which conventional MRI does not unequivocally indicate an inflammatory tissue reaction. [11C](R)-PK11195 PET may help in the choice of appropriate biopsy sites and, further, may allow assessment of the efficacy of antiinflammatory disease-modifying treatment.
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6/130. Partial seizures manifesting as apnea only in an adult.

    PURPOSE: Although several cases of apneic seizures have been reported in neonates, epileptic seizures presenting as apnea only in adults are very rare. We present a case report of a 19-year-old man with viral encephalitis and frequent episodes of apneic seizures. methods: Prolonged electroencephalograms (EEGs), respiratory monitorings, and imaging including ictal-interictal subtraction single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) coregistered with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed. RESULTS: Ictal EEGs recorded during apneic episodes showed repetitive sharp waves or rhythmic theta activity arising from the left or right independent bitemporal region. Ictal SPECT was performed during one episode of apnea that showed ictal EEG discharges arising from the left posterior temporal area. Ictal-interictal subtraction SPECT coregistered with MRI revealed that the seizures originated from the left, posterior, midlateral temporal cortex. CONCLUSIONS: Previous studies with ictal EEG or brain stimulation suggest that apneic seizures might be mediated through the limbic and associated cortical systems. Our study reports on a very rare case of partial seizures with apnea only in an adult patient and is supported by ictal EEG and ictal-interictal subtraction SPECT coregistered with MRI.
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ranking = 11.601769571346
keywords = wave
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7/130. Slow-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in a patient with focal cortical dysplasia.

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of slow-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (SF-rTMS) on interictal epileptiform activity and seizure frequency in a patient with medically refractory partial seizures due to focal cortical dysplasia. methods: A 9-cm circular coil was positioned over the area of cortical dysplasia. One hundred stimuli given at 0.5 Hz at 5% below motor threshold were given biweekly for four consecutive weeks. The EEG was recorded for 30 min before and after the first 100 stimuli. The number of seizures during the month of stimulation was compared with that of the month before stimulation. RESULTS: Stimulation was associated with a 70% reduction in the frequency of seizures and a 77% reduction in the frequency of interictal spikes. No seizures occurred during stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: SF-rTMS was safe and well tolerated in this patient. The reduction in seizures and interictal spikes associated with SF-rTMS supports the concept of SF-rTMS-induced cortical inhibition.
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8/130. Benign partial epilepsy in infancy and early childhood with vertex spikes and waves during sleep: a new epileptic form.

    International epilepsy classification includes different epileptic syndromes with favourable outcomes in paediatric age, both partial and generalised. This is true in childhood while no partial benign forms are accepted in infancy. In 1987, Watanabe first described a new entity and he defined it as 'benign complex partial epilepsies in infancy'. In 1992, Vigevano referred similar but familial cases whose seizures had secondary generalisation. Both these forms had no interictal EEG abnormalities neither awake nor during sleep. This article presents a survey of 12 cases of partial epilepsy with favourable outcome differing from Watanabe and Vigevano's cases, both for the presence of interictal EEG abnormalities only during sleep and for seizure picture. All our patients are neurologically and neuroradiologically normal. Psychomotor development is unremarkable. Age onset range is 13-30 months. All cases present characteristic spikes and waves during slow-sleep in vertex cerebral areas. Awake EEG is always normal, at follow-up too. Our cases have such homogeneous electroclinical features as to hypothesise a new partial idiopathic epileptic syndrome with favourable outcome in infancy and early childhood. We propose to define it as 'benign partial epilepsy in infancy and early childhood with vertex spikes and waves' (BVSE).
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ranking = 69.610617428077
keywords = wave
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9/130. The spectrum of acquired cognitive disturbances in children with partial epilepsy and continuous spike-waves during sleep. A 4-year follow-up case study with prolonged reversible learning arrest and dysfluency.

    We report a longitudinal study (7-11 years) of a previously normal boy (MR) who presented from the age of 5 years with rare partial motor seizures and atypical 'absences'. The history revealed a stagnation in development and speech difficulties a few months before onset of his epilepsy. The first waking electroencephalogram (EEG) showed rare generalized discharges during hyperventilation. magnetic resonance imaging revealed an arachnoid cyst in the frontotemporal region. Although his epilepsy never became severe, he experienced important learning difficulties. Subsequent EEGs became increasingly active with left focal epileptic activity and continuous spike-waves during sleep (CSWS) present from the first sleep EEG. The first neuropsychological evaluation (7 years) showed a speech dysfluency, word finding and naming problems, inattention and low intelligence quotient. carbamazepine was changed to clobazam and later ethosuximide was added with a rapid improvement (within 1 month) in linguistic and cognitive performances as well as in behaviour. Furthermore, the patient showed considerable progress in acquisition over the next months whereas learning to read had previously been very difficult. The epileptic activity gradually disappeared and he was able to follow regular school at an age-appropriate level. This case adds a new facet to the already recognized more obvious acquired neuropsychological disturbances known to occur in some partial childhood epilepsy syndromes with CSWS (aphasia, dementia). It manifested as prolonged insidious stagnation in learning and subtle language disability. This study documents rapid specific language improvement with change in anti-epileptic drugs and a restored immediate and long-term learning capacity, suggesting a direct but 'hidden' role of epilepsy.
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ranking = 58.008847856731
keywords = wave
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10/130. Successful control with bromide of two patients with malignant migrating partial seizures in infancy.

    A 3-month-old male and a 4-month-old female infant with intractable seizures were diagnosed as having malignant migrating partial seizures in infancy (MMPSI) with developmental arrest on the basis of characteristics of symptoms, clinical courses and EEGs. We treated these two patients with potassium bromide (80 mg/kg) after conventional antiepileptic drugs failed to adequately control the seizures. The potassium bromide therapy resulted in complete control of seizures in one patient, and more than 95% reduction in seizure frequency in the other.
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