Cases reported "Epilepsy, Absence"

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11/145. transcranial magnetic stimulation induces 'pseudoabsence seizure'.

    OBJECTIVE: Several studies support the hypothesis of an antidepressive or mood-enhancing effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on depressive patients. The most acute concern regarding rTMS is possible seizure induction; therefore, reports on seizure during rTMS are of special significance. METHOD: We describe a case in which high frequency rTMS over the left dorsolatero-prefrontal cortex (DLPC) applied as an add-on antidepressive strategy may have induced a frontal lobe complex partial seizure in a female patient affected by drug-resistant depression. RESULTS: The epileptic seizure was self-limited, and the patient did not report any physical sequelae. The psychopathological improvement, observed immediately after the incident in question, did not last. CONCLUSION: In this case train duration in rTMS, combined with drugs modulating the norepinephrine turnover, may have contributed to the occurrence of this complex partial seizure, which neuroanatomically seems to be localized in the DLPC.
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ranking = 1
keywords = mal, complex
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12/145. The spectrum of acquired cognitive disturbances in children with partial epilepsy and continuous spike-waves during sleep. A 4-year follow-up case study with prolonged reversible learning arrest and dysfluency.

    We report a longitudinal study (7-11 years) of a previously normal boy (MR) who presented from the age of 5 years with rare partial motor seizures and atypical 'absences'. The history revealed a stagnation in development and speech difficulties a few months before onset of his epilepsy. The first waking electroencephalogram (EEG) showed rare generalized discharges during hyperventilation. magnetic resonance imaging revealed an arachnoid cyst in the frontotemporal region. Although his epilepsy never became severe, he experienced important learning difficulties. Subsequent EEGs became increasingly active with left focal epileptic activity and continuous spike-waves during sleep (CSWS) present from the first sleep EEG. The first neuropsychological evaluation (7 years) showed a speech dysfluency, word finding and naming problems, inattention and low intelligence quotient. carbamazepine was changed to clobazam and later ethosuximide was added with a rapid improvement (within 1 month) in linguistic and cognitive performances as well as in behaviour. Furthermore, the patient showed considerable progress in acquisition over the next months whereas learning to read had previously been very difficult. The epileptic activity gradually disappeared and he was able to follow regular school at an age-appropriate level. This case adds a new facet to the already recognized more obvious acquired neuropsychological disturbances known to occur in some partial childhood epilepsy syndromes with CSWS (aphasia, dementia). It manifested as prolonged insidious stagnation in learning and subtle language disability. This study documents rapid specific language improvement with change in anti-epileptic drugs and a restored immediate and long-term learning capacity, suggesting a direct but 'hidden' role of epilepsy.
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ranking = 0.997684102737
keywords = mal
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13/145. Distinct behavioral and EEG topographic correlates of loss of consciousness in absences.

    PURPOSE: To describe the behavioral and EEG topographic correlates of absences with 3-Hz generalized spike-waves and partitioned impairment of consciousness. methods: Two adult women had so-called "phantom" absences, characterized by brief and mild impairments of consciousness that were previously inconspicuous to both patient and physician. Neuropsychological examination was performed under video-EEG monitoring during absence status. EEG topographic mapping of spike-wave discharges was obtained in the two cases. RESULTS: Only mild attentional and executive disturbances were observed during absence status despite prolonged discharges. Spike-wave bursts were associated with selective impairment in the initiation of response and self-generated action, whereas short-term storage of external information during discharges was fully preserved. This is consistent with a predominant involvement of frontomesial cortex demonstrated by topographic mapping of spike-wave discharges in the two cases. By contrast, in two other patients with typical absences and a complete lack of retention for information given during the discharges, topographic mapping found a more lateral frontal involvement by spike-wave activity. CONCLUSIONS: Different types of absence seizures may impair distinct components of conscious behavior. A predominant involvement of frontomesial thalamocortical circuitry may underlie an "inconspicuous" disorder of consciousness as seen in phantom absences with selective loss of initiation and goal-oriented behavior, whereas involvement of more lateral frontal areas in typical absences may additionally disrupt working memory processes.
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ranking = 1237.2108111977
keywords = absence status, status
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14/145. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor: a curable cause of seizures.

    Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT) was first characterized in 1988 by Daumas-Duport and Scheithauer [1], who described 39 cases in children with morphologically distinct brain tumors. Partial complex seizures (PCSs), well-defined neuroimages, and typical pathologic findings were characteristic. Surgical resection of the tumor was usually curative. We present a new case of a child with PCSs who was diagnosed and treated for DNT. The clinical presentation and the difficulties of the differential diagnosis are discussed.
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ranking = 0.0011579486315024
keywords = complex
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15/145. nose wiping: an unrecognized automatism in absence seizures.

    nose wiping is a well-known postictal automatism in complex partial seizures, considered very important for lateralization. We report a 24-year-old woman selected from 32 patients with video-EEG investigations of absence seizures. The patient, with normal examination and imaging findings, had typical absence seizures from the age of 5 years, which were controlled with either ethosuximide or valproate and worsened by carbamazepine. In two of her recorded typical absence seizures associated with generalized 3 Hz symmetric spike-wave discharges, she wiped her nose as an automatism in the ictal and post-ictal period. Our case showed that nose wiping could be associated with generalized seizures, in contrast to other recent reports.
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ranking = 0.9988420513685
keywords = mal, complex
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16/145. A case of atypical absence seizures induced by leuprolide acetate.

    We report a case of a 13-year-old female with atypical absence seizures induced by prolonged administration of long-acting leuprolide acetate (LA). This patient had brain involvement resulting from chemotherapy and radiotherapy for a medulloblastoma. At 13 years of age, administration of long-acting LA was started. After the third dose of long-acting LA, atypical absence seizures appeared. After discontinuing long-acting LA, the seizures stopped without administration of any antiepileptic drugs. However, 2 years, 6 months later, the same seizures again appeared. On the basis of the findings of endocrinologic investigations and the reported data of pharmacokinetics of LA, we speculate that her seizures were induced by LA and that the seizures were associated with the presence of brain damage in the patient. Care should therefore be taken when using long-acting LA or other gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues for pediatric patients with diffuse brain damage.
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ranking = 0.997684102737
keywords = mal
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17/145. New-onset absence status epilepsy presenting as altered mental status in a pediatric patient.

    Absence status epilepsy (ASE) is an uncommon seizure disorder in children. The primary presentation of new-onset ASE in a pediatric patient is an unusual cause of altered mental status in the emergency department. We describe a previously healthy 8-year-old child who presented with an acutely altered mental state. The patient was awake but confused, with a fluctuating level of alertness and an inability to perform simple routine tasks. The results of general physical and neurologic examination, with the exception of mental status, were normal. head computed tomography and laboratory test results were normal. Electroencephalographic testing revealed seizure activity consistent with ASE. Administration of intravenous diazepam caused cessation of seizure activity and a return to the patient's baseline mental function. Although rare, ASE should be considered in the differential diagnosis of altered mental status in children.
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ranking = 2483.3837801071
keywords = absence status, mal, status, simple
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18/145. Epigastric sensations as an unusual manifestation of adult absence epilepsy.

    We report the case of a 39-year-old woman with onset of daily epigastric sensations associated with brief episodes of unresponsive blank stare, which have been interpreted as complex partial seizures with occasional secondary generalisation. phenytoin as monotherapy and in combination with valproate had not been effective. During video-EEG we recorded typical absences with brief 3 second spike, and slow-wave discharges of up to 5 seconds, which were recognized by the patient herself. All absences were preceded by epigastric sensations. There was no indication of focal epilepsy. Monotherapy with valproate substantially decreased the frequency of the absences. In conclusion, this case is peculiar for several reasons: 1) late onset of absence epilepsy, 2) epigastric sensation at onset of absence seizures, 3) recognition of brief "phantom" absences and 4) presumable adverse effects of phenytoin.
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ranking = 0.0011579486315024
keywords = complex
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19/145. Perioral myoclonia with absence seizures: a rare epileptic syndrome.

    We present the clinical and video-EEG data on an epileptic boy whose absence seizures with marked perioral movements had started at the age of 1.5 years. From age 12 years, he experienced frequent episodes of typical absence status epilepticus (ASE) lasting 1-2 hours with marked perioral myoclonia and moderate confusion. Initial therapy with carbamazepine was substituted by valproate because of worsening of the absence seizures. At the age of 17, the patient was admitted to our clinic with his usual, but long lasting ASE attack, accompanied by 2 generalized tonic-clonic convulsions. ASE was confirmed with the EEG which showed continuous 3 Hz spike and wave paroxysms with occasional normal intervals of 1-5 seconds. IV injection of clonazepam improved the clinical and EEG findings immediately. Video- EEG examination performed after a few weeks demonstrated typical absence seizures with perioral myoclonia. Based on the characteristics of seizure semiology, other clinical data and EEG findings, the patient was diagnosed as having the syndrome of "perioral myoclonia with absence seizures" described by Panayiotopoulos.
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ranking = 681.14030704686
keywords = absence status, status epilepticus, epilepticus, mal, status
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20/145. Idiopathic generalised epilepsy with phantom absences and absence status in a child.

    A syndrome of idiopathic generalised epilepsy with phantom absences of undetermined onset has been recently described. This syndrome clinically becomes apparent in adulthood with generalised tonic clonic seizures and frequently absence status epilepticus. We report an 11 year-old normal girl with frequent episodes of absence status and no other overt clinical manifestations. However, appropriate video-EEG recordings documented that she had frequent absence seizures that were so mild as to escape recognition by her and the parents. These consisted of mild impairment of cognition and eyelid fluttering during brief generalised discharges of spike/multiple spike and slow waves. No further seizures occurred and the EEG normalised after appropriate drug treatment. Thus, it appears that this syndrome of phantom absences and absence status may start much earlier, in late childhood. Appropriate video-EEG documentation is needed for the recognition of these patients that may be more common than it appears from the few published cases (with Video).
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ranking = 4393.7704247427
keywords = absence status, status epilepticus, epilepticus, mal, status
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