Cases reported "Epilepsy, Absence"

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1/44. hemangioma calcificans. Case report of an intraparenchymatous calcified vascular hematoma with epileptogenic potential.

    A middle-aged woman, with a previous history of medically suppressed absence attacks, presented with mild changes in mental status and a skull film demonstrating several areas of mottled, granular, intracranial calcifications. These lesions, although readily visible on computerized tomography, appeared avascular during the course of cerebral angiography. At the time of surgery the masses, which were densely calcified and generally circular, demonstrated numerous areas of superficial, white, verrucous excrescences. Microscopic, pathological evaluation confirmed the diagnosis of hemangioma calcificans. The literature describing this rare entity is briefly reviewed.
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2/44. Prolonged psychic epileptic seizures: a study of the absence status.

    Long-lived epileptic seizures associated with spike-and-wave complexes are presently considered to be the absence status, i.e., the generalized nonconvulsive status. EEG radiotelemetry allowed us to record three prolonged seizures of 3 epileptic patients. Clinical manifestations included selective rather than global impairment of higher cortical functions. Clinical impairment appeared only when patients were in a state of activity and if those altered functions were used. EEG abnormalities were diffuse, but among them spike-and-wave complexes were never diffuse. It was impossible to establish close electroclinical correlation. However, the clinical and electrical evolution was roughly isomorphic, i.e., cyclic. Major clinical manifestations were associated with spikes rather than with slow waves. Lastly, patients showed common ictal psychopathological symptoms. The problem of classifying such seizures in either the generalized or partial status is discussed. The role of selective impairment of mental functions in psychopathological symptoms is also dealth with.
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3/44. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus in childhood localization-related epilepsy.

    PURPOSE: To report on three children with localization-related epilepsy who exhibited minor seizures (atypical absences, brief atonic, and myoclonic) and nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) consisting of these minor seizures, and to elucidate their significance. methods: We studied the electroclinical characteristics of these children. Ictal electroencephalograms (EEGs) of NCSE were evaluated by using simultaneous video-EEG-electromyogram (EMG) polygraphic recordings. RESULTS: All patients began to have partial seizures between the ages of 6 months and 2 years 7 months, with minor seizures appearing later, between the ages of 1 year 11 months and 6 years 6 months. These minor seizures evolved into NCSE. Complex partial seizures remained after suppression of the minor seizures. Interictal EEGs taken when the minor seizures appeared showed excessive diffuse epileptic discharges in addition to multifocal spike-waves. Before and after suppression of the minor seizures, focal epileptic discharges predominated on the EEGs. On ictal EEGs of brief atonic and myoclonic seizures, diffuse spike-wave and polyspike-wave bursts were detected. Ictal EEGs of the atypical absences revealed diffuse spike-wave bursts mixed with irregular high-voltage slow waves, often interspersed with brief atonic and myoclonic seizures. When atypical absences lasted for a long time, patients manifested NCSE. Polytherapy might be related to the occurrence of minor seizures and NCSE, because all patients were treated with polytherapy at their appearance, and simplification of antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy seemed to be effective. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that this NCSE is a type of atypical absence status which is an age-dependent, transient, electroclinical condition. The mechanism of occurrence of these minor seizures might be related to secondary bilateral synchrony.
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4/44. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus in eyelid myoclonia with absences--evidence of provocation unrelated to photosensitivity.

    A 10-year old girl with eyelid myoclonia with absences (EMA) in whom nonconvulsive status epilepticus developed shortly after awakening is described. A video-polygraphic recording during the status showed the characteristic eye-closure provocation of eyelid myoclonia with upward deviation of the eyeballs and brief absences. Ictal EEG showed generalized polyspikes concomitant with eyelid myoclonia, while absences were accompanied by 3.5 Hz polyspike-wave complexes on EEG. This condition occurred even in total darkness as well as even after seizures precipitated by bright sunlight had been eliminated by medication. The present case suggests that the eye closure mechanism could be a more potent precipitating factor than photosensitivity in the pathophysiology of EMA.
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5/44. Tiagabine-induced absence status in idiopathic generalized epilepsy.

    Several medications such as baclofen, amitriptyline and even antiepileptic drugs such as carbamazepine or vigabatrin are known to induce absence status epilepticus in patients with generalized epilepsies. Tiagabine (TGB) is effective in patients with focal epilepsies. However, TGB has also been reported to induce non-convulsive status epilepticus in several patients with focal epilepsies and in one patient with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. In animal models of generalized epilepsy, TGB induces absence status with 3-5 Hz spike-wave complexes. We describe a 32-year-old patient with absence epilepsy and primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures since 11 years of age, who developed her first absence status epilepticus while treated with 45 mg of TGB daily. Administration of lorazepam and immediate reduction in TGB dosage was followed by complete clinical and electroencephalographic remission. This case demonstrates that TGB can induce typical absence status epilepticus in a patient with primary generalized epilepsy.
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6/44. Myoclonic status epilepticus following high-dosage lamotrigine therapy.

    An 8-year-old girl with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome showed a partial reduction in seizure frequency when lamotrigine (LTG), 15 mg/kg per day, was added to clobazam (CLB) and vigabatrin (VGB). An increase in LTG dosage to 20 mg/kg per day produced no further improvement and was followed by myoclonic status epilepticus. The condition developed insidiously and ultimately became stable. Video-EEG polygraphy and jerk-locked back-averaged EEG demonstrated continuous myoclonus of cortical origin. Discontinuation of LTG resulted in rapid disappearance of clinical and electrophysiological manifestations of myoclonic status epilepticus. No episodes of myoclonus occurred in the subsequent 2 years, during which CLB and VGB were kept unchanged. The striking response to drug discontinuation suggests that LTG may have played a role in the precipitation of status, possibly within the context of paradoxical intoxication.
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7/44. Distinct behavioral and EEG topographic correlates of loss of consciousness in absences.

    PURPOSE: To describe the behavioral and EEG topographic correlates of absences with 3-Hz generalized spike-waves and partitioned impairment of consciousness. methods: Two adult women had so-called "phantom" absences, characterized by brief and mild impairments of consciousness that were previously inconspicuous to both patient and physician. Neuropsychological examination was performed under video-EEG monitoring during absence status. EEG topographic mapping of spike-wave discharges was obtained in the two cases. RESULTS: Only mild attentional and executive disturbances were observed during absence status despite prolonged discharges. Spike-wave bursts were associated with selective impairment in the initiation of response and self-generated action, whereas short-term storage of external information during discharges was fully preserved. This is consistent with a predominant involvement of frontomesial cortex demonstrated by topographic mapping of spike-wave discharges in the two cases. By contrast, in two other patients with typical absences and a complete lack of retention for information given during the discharges, topographic mapping found a more lateral frontal involvement by spike-wave activity. CONCLUSIONS: Different types of absence seizures may impair distinct components of conscious behavior. A predominant involvement of frontomesial thalamocortical circuitry may underlie an "inconspicuous" disorder of consciousness as seen in phantom absences with selective loss of initiation and goal-oriented behavior, whereas involvement of more lateral frontal areas in typical absences may additionally disrupt working memory processes.
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8/44. New-onset absence status epilepsy presenting as altered mental status in a pediatric patient.

    Absence status epilepsy (ASE) is an uncommon seizure disorder in children. The primary presentation of new-onset ASE in a pediatric patient is an unusual cause of altered mental status in the emergency department. We describe a previously healthy 8-year-old child who presented with an acutely altered mental state. The patient was awake but confused, with a fluctuating level of alertness and an inability to perform simple routine tasks. The results of general physical and neurologic examination, with the exception of mental status, were normal. head computed tomography and laboratory test results were normal. Electroencephalographic testing revealed seizure activity consistent with ASE. Administration of intravenous diazepam caused cessation of seizure activity and a return to the patient's baseline mental function. Although rare, ASE should be considered in the differential diagnosis of altered mental status in children.
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9/44. Perioral myoclonia with absence seizures: a rare epileptic syndrome.

    We present the clinical and video-EEG data on an epileptic boy whose absence seizures with marked perioral movements had started at the age of 1.5 years. From age 12 years, he experienced frequent episodes of typical absence status epilepticus (ASE) lasting 1-2 hours with marked perioral myoclonia and moderate confusion. Initial therapy with carbamazepine was substituted by valproate because of worsening of the absence seizures. At the age of 17, the patient was admitted to our clinic with his usual, but long lasting ASE attack, accompanied by 2 generalized tonic-clonic convulsions. ASE was confirmed with the EEG which showed continuous 3 Hz spike and wave paroxysms with occasional normal intervals of 1-5 seconds. IV injection of clonazepam improved the clinical and EEG findings immediately. Video- EEG examination performed after a few weeks demonstrated typical absence seizures with perioral myoclonia. Based on the characteristics of seizure semiology, other clinical data and EEG findings, the patient was diagnosed as having the syndrome of "perioral myoclonia with absence seizures" described by Panayiotopoulos.
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10/44. Idiopathic generalised epilepsy with phantom absences and absence status in a child.

    A syndrome of idiopathic generalised epilepsy with phantom absences of undetermined onset has been recently described. This syndrome clinically becomes apparent in adulthood with generalised tonic clonic seizures and frequently absence status epilepticus. We report an 11 year-old normal girl with frequent episodes of absence status and no other overt clinical manifestations. However, appropriate video-EEG recordings documented that she had frequent absence seizures that were so mild as to escape recognition by her and the parents. These consisted of mild impairment of cognition and eyelid fluttering during brief generalised discharges of spike/multiple spike and slow waves. No further seizures occurred and the EEG normalised after appropriate drug treatment. Thus, it appears that this syndrome of phantom absences and absence status may start much earlier, in late childhood. Appropriate video-EEG documentation is needed for the recognition of these patients that may be more common than it appears from the few published cases (with Video).
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