Cases reported "Epilepsy, Complex Partial"

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1/31. An angiographically occult arteriovenous malformation in the medial parietal lobe presenting as seizures of medial temporal lobe origin.

    We present an unusual case of a patient who was diagnosed with temporal lobe epilepsy and whose seizures were reduced markedly after excision of an angiographically occult arteriovenous malformation (AVM) located in the left medial parietal lobe. A 38-year-old man had complex partial seizures characterized by motionless staring with oroalimentary and behavioral automatisms since the age of 15 years. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a small lesion extending from the left posterior cingulate gyrus to the precuneus. There was no MRI evidence of mesial temporal sclerosis. Intracranial EEG recordings showed ictal onset from the left medial parietal lobe propagating to the medial temporal lobes. Clinical signs appeared when these discharges reached the temporal lobes. After excision of the lesion (which was histologically confirmed as an AVM), together with the marginal cortex, seizures were reduced significantly. Careful diagnostic evaluation of lesions such as the this one may reveal an epileptogenic lesion (zone) far from the region where scalp ictal discharges seem to arise. In our case, we hypothesize that false localization was due to propagation of ictal discharges from the parietal focus through the limbic system.
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2/31. Unidirectional olfactory hallucination associated with ipsilateral unruptured intracranial aneurysm.

    PURPOSE: We describe a patient with complex partial seizure with unidirectional olfactory aura associated with ipsilateral unruptured aneurysm. methods AND RESULTS: The patient felt a sweet pleasant smell coming from behind her right side every time before the attack. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) angiography revealed a large aneurysm at the bifurcation of the right middle cerebral artery and compression of the right orbitofrontal cortex. Small spikes were recorded from the right orbitofrontal and superior temporal gyri and from the uncus by the cortical electrodes during clipping of the aneurysm. CONCLUSIONS: The orbitofrontal cortex may have a function related to the ipsilateral directional olfactory sensation.
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3/31. Meningioangiomatosis. A comprehensive analysis of clinical and laboratory features.

    Meningioangiomatosis (MA) is a rare, benign, focal lesion of the leptomeninges and underlying cerebral cortex characterized by leptomeningeal and meningovascular proliferation. It may occur sporadically or in association with neurofibromatosis type 2. Previous reports have emphasized histological and imaging features. Data on the management of these patients are sparse, and electrophysiological features of MA lesions have not been published. We assessed the clinical, electrophysiological, histopathological and imaging features as well as the surgical outcome in MA, and compared MA with and without neurofibromatosis. Seven patients with MA at our centre were investigated and their outcome was assessed. A review of the literature is included. MA exhibits a wide range of clinical, imaging, histopathological and electrophysiological features, making the diagnosis difficult. Sporadic MA cases are not associated with neurofibromatosis and the two disorders are genetically distinct. Medically refractory, localization-related epilepsy is the commonest presentation in sporadic cases, but atypical presentations also occur. Unlike sporadic cases, MA with neurofibromatosis is often found incidentally, does not produce seizures, occurs less frequently (ratio of 1:4), and is multifocal. MRI findings in MA correspond to the histological picture. However, the appearance on imaging is non-specific and may suggest cystic atrophy, angioma and tumours. Several abnormalities have been found in close proximity to MA lesions, i.e. meningioma, oligodendroglioma, arteriovenous malformation, encephalocoel and orbital erosion. In spite of histopathological diversity, MA lesions are either predominantly cellular or vascular. Immunohistochemical results are inconsistent among cases, add little to the diagnosis, and do not support a meningeal origin. Electrocorticographic recordings from the surface and within MA lesions revealed a spectrum of electrophysiological expressions. Intrinsic epileptogenicity of MA lesions was documented in some cases. Epileptogenicity was confined to the perilesional cortex in some patients and it was complex (extralesional, multifocal, generalized) in others. Only 43% of our patients became seizure-free postoperatively compared with 68% previously reported, and >70% of our patients and those in the literature continued to require antiepileptic drugs. This is in keeping with the diverse electrophysiology of MA and suggests a less optimistic postoperative outcome than previously recognized.
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4/31. Opercular reflex seizures: a case report with stereo-electroencephalographic demonstration.

    reflex epileptic seizures of opercular origin have been described previously based on video-electroencephalographic monitoring, but very few patients have been explored with depth electrodes. We report a woman with late-onset epilepsy who had intractable seizures despite trials of several antiepileptic drugs. At the time of the depth-electrode recordings, seizures were usually continuous and occurred either spontaneously or were induced by movements of the jaw and mouth. The seizures originated in the deep central opercular cortex; localization was confirmed by a good surgical outcome.
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5/31. Intraoperative monitoring to preserve central visual fields during occipital corticectomy for epilepsy.

    Photic driving using a flashing strobe light was recorded via intracranial electrodes in two patients with occipital epilepsy being evaluated for surgery. The same technique was used to monitor the visual cortex intraoperatively. Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were also obtained using the intracranial electrodes in one patient. Preoperative photic driving occurred in a separate location from the cortical areas producing ictal epileptiform activity. VEPs were located in the same site as photic driving. Photic driving was monitored throughout the resection and remained unaffected at the end of each procedure. Postoperative visual field testing in both patients showed preservation of central vision although some reduction in peripheral fields was seen. Intraoperative monitoring of the visual cortex using photic stimulation proved to be a reliable technique for preserving central vision during occipital lobe surgery.
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keywords = cortex
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6/31. Remote effects of cortical dysgenesis on the primary motor cortex: evidence from the silent period following transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    OBJECTIVE: In cortical dysgenesis (CD), animal studies suggested abnormal cortico-cortical connections. Cerebral areas projecting to the primary motor cortex (M1) modulate the cortical silent period (CSP) following transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Therefore, we used the CSP to investigate remote effects of CD on the M1. methods: A detailed investigation, including single-pulse TMS and electrical nerve stimulation, was performed in 3 consecutive adults with focal CD located outside the M1 and in 18 controls. Two patients with unilateral CD were epileptic and treated with anti-epileptic drugs. One patient with focal CD on both sides had no history of seizures. Neurological examination was normal in all patients. Recordings were made from both first dorsal interosseous muscles. RESULTS: In CD patients, the CSP was significantly lengthened contralaterally to the affected hemispheres. In treated patients with unilateral CD, the interside difference of the CSP duration was also significantly increased. In contrast, excitability threshold, peripheral and corticospinal motor conduction studies, and peripheral as well as ipsilateral silent periods were not significantly modified. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that focal CD outside the M1 may produce CSP modifications, which are likely due to changes of afferent control.
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7/31. Surgical management of intractable epilepsy associated with cerebral neurocytoma.

    Neuronal neoplasms of the CNS constitute a rarely encountered group of tumors. This report concerns the surgical management of seizures encountered in four cases (ranging from 2 to 10 years-of-age at onset; consisting of two males and two females) of a recently recognized morphologically unique tumor, called 'cerebral neurocytoma'. All patients were associated solely with intractable complex partial seizures. The tumor involved the temporal lobe in two cases, and the frontal in two. magnetoencephalography (MEG) clearly demonstrated an accumulation of equivalent current dipoles originating from the interictal spikes on the cortex around the tumor. On intra-operative electrocorticography (ECoG), the epileptogenic zone was topographically distinct from the region of the tumor. No definite ECoG activities were observed at the tumor site, although this tumor did consist of small mature neuronal cells. Either a complete or a subtotal resection of the tumor and the epileptogenic cortex was performed and, post-operatively, universal freedom from seizures was demonstrated in all patients. A histological examination of the epileptogenic cortex revealed the presence of minute cortical dysplasia or tumor involvement in the hippocampus. A resection of the epileptogenic cortex along with the tumor was thus found to improve the seizure outcome in patients with neurocytoma-associated epilepsy without inducing any identifiable neurological deficits attributable to the incremental resection.
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keywords = cortex
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8/31. Epileptic seizures in a patient by immersing his right hand into hot water.

    We report on a 22-year-old assistant cook, presenting with seizures evoked by immersing his right hand into hot water of 40-46 degrees C. His seizure pattern consisted of either simple partial seizures of a tingling sensation arising in the right hand and marching to the right shoulder or a similar attack evolving to a complex partial seizure. Video-EEG monitoring recorded habitual seizures originating from the left centro-temporo-parietal region, compatible with lesions seen on brain magnetic resonance imaging. He responded well to antiepileptic drug treatment and wearing gloves while working in the kitchen. In this patient, hot water of 40-46 degrees C could maximally stimulate skin warm thermoreceptors in the right hand whereby afferent impulses subsequently activated the epileptogenic focus, adjacent to or in the sensory cortex, and elicited seizures.
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keywords = cortex
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9/31. Surgical resection for intractable epilepsy in "double cortex" syndrome yields inadequate results.

    PURPOSE: To analyze the results of surgical treatment of intractable epilepsy in patients with subcortical band heterotopia, or double cortex syndrome, a diffuse neuronal migration disorder. methods: We studied eight patients (five women) with double cortex syndrome and intractable epilepsy. All had a comprehensive presurgical evaluation including prolonged video-EEG recordings and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). RESULTS: All patients had partial seizures, with secondary generalization in six of them. neurologic examination was normal in all. Three were of normal intelligence, and five were mildly retarded. Six patients underwent invasive EEG recordings, three of them with subdural grids and three with stereotactic implanted depth electrodes (SEEG). Although EEG recordings showed multilobar epileptic abnormalities in most patients, regional or focal seizure onset was recorded in all. MRI showed bilateral subcortical band heterotopia, asymmetric in thickness in three. An additional area of cortical thickening in the left frontal lobe was found in one patient. Surgical procedures included multiple subpial transections in two patients, frontal lesionectomy in one, temporal lobectomy with amygdalohippocampectomy in five, and an additional anterior callosotomy in one. Five patients had no significant improvement, two had some improvement, and one was greatly improved. CONCLUSION: Our results do not support focal surgical removal of epileptogenic tissue in patients with double cortex syndrome, even in the presence of a relatively localized epileptogenic area.
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ranking = 7
keywords = cortex
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10/31. Dipole localization of human induced focal afterdischarge seizure in simultaneous magnetoencephalography and electrocorticography.

    Localizations were compared for the same human seizure between simultaneously measured MEG and iEEG, which were both co-registered to MRI. The whole-cortex neuromagnetometer localized a dipole in a sphere phantom, co-registered to the MEG sensor array, with an error of 1.4 mm. A focal afterdischarge seizure was induced in a patient with partial epilepsy, by stimulation at a subdural electrocorticography (ECoG) electrode with a known location, which was co-registered to the MRI and to the MEG sensor array. The simultaneous MEG and ECoG during the 30-second seizure was measured and analyzed using the single, moving dipole model, which is the localization model used clinically. The dipole localizations from simultaneous whole cortex 68-channel MEG and 64-channel ECoG were then compared for the repetitive spiking at six different times during the seizure. There were two main regions of MEG and ECoG activity. The locations of these regions were confirmed by determining the location clusters of 8,000 dipoles on ECoG at consecutive time points during the seizure. The mean distances between the stimulated electrode location versus the dipole location of the MEG and versus the dipole location of the ECoG were each about one (1) centimeter. The mean distance between the dipole locations of the MEG versus the dipole locations of the ECoG was about 2 cm. These errors were compared to errors of MEG and ECoG reported previously for phantoms and for somatosensory evoked responses (SER) in patients. Comparing the findings from the present study to those from prior studies, there appeared to be the expected stepwise increase in mean localization error progressing from the phantom, to the SER, to the seizure.
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keywords = cortex
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