Cases reported "Epilepsy, Complex Partial"

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1/322. Ring chromosome 14 complicated with complex partial seizures and hypoplastic corpus callosum.

    A Japanese male with mosaicism of ring chromosome 14 and chromosome 14 monosomy is described. He demonstrated the characteristic morphologic features of ring chromosome 14, in addition to mental retardation and epileptic seizures. Clusters of complex partial seizures, one of which originated in the left frontocentral region on electroencephalographic monitoring, were evident. His seizures responded to phenobarbital, and his mental and motor development was only mildly retarded. magnetic resonance imaging revealed a hypoplastic corpus callosum, previously unknown in association with this syndrome. ( info)

2/322. An angiographically occult arteriovenous malformation in the medial parietal lobe presenting as seizures of medial temporal lobe origin.

    We present an unusual case of a patient who was diagnosed with temporal lobe epilepsy and whose seizures were reduced markedly after excision of an angiographically occult arteriovenous malformation (AVM) located in the left medial parietal lobe. A 38-year-old man had complex partial seizures characterized by motionless staring with oroalimentary and behavioral automatisms since the age of 15 years. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a small lesion extending from the left posterior cingulate gyrus to the precuneus. There was no MRI evidence of mesial temporal sclerosis. Intracranial EEG recordings showed ictal onset from the left medial parietal lobe propagating to the medial temporal lobes. Clinical signs appeared when these discharges reached the temporal lobes. After excision of the lesion (which was histologically confirmed as an AVM), together with the marginal cortex, seizures were reduced significantly. Careful diagnostic evaluation of lesions such as the this one may reveal an epileptogenic lesion (zone) far from the region where scalp ictal discharges seem to arise. In our case, we hypothesize that false localization was due to propagation of ictal discharges from the parietal focus through the limbic system. ( info)

3/322. Clinical and EEG findings in complex partial status epilepticus with tiagabine.

    A case of complex partial status epilepticus (CPSE) with high dose treatment of tiagabine (TGB) is reported. Seizure aggravation and CPSE developed after stepwise increase of TGB to a dose of 60 mg per day as add-on treatment to carbamazepine (CBZ) 1200 mg/day and vigabatrine (VGB) 1000 mg/day. The EEG during CPSE showed bilateral rhythmic slow activity. Clinical symptoms of CPSE and the EEG normalized after i.v. treatment with clonazepam. The literature and the possible mechanism of this paradoxical phenomenon are discussed. ( info)

4/322. Cerebral metabolism of the remote area after epilepsy surgery.

    To clarify whether epilepsy surgery improves cerebral metabolism, pre- and postoperative positron emission tomography (PET) scans were performed, with special reference to hypometabolism outside the resected epileptogenic zones in nine patients (8 males, 1 female) with medically intractable complex partial seizures and multiple hypometabolic zones. Seven patients underwent unilateral anterior temporal lobectomy, one patient underwent selective amygdalohippocampectomy, and one patient underwent parieto-occipital cortical resection and anterior temporal lobectomy. PET scans were obtained at least 6 months after surgery. Eight patients became seizure-free, and one patient had fewer than three seizures per year. Four patients showed improved glucose metabolism in the formerly hypometabolic zones, which were remote to the surgical site and ipsilateral to the epileptogenic foci. Five patients, who showed bilateral temporal hypometabolism preoperatively, had contralateral temporal hypometabolism after surgery. The relative glucose uptake in four of these patients showed increased metabolism of the adjacent lobes ipsilateral to the surgical site. The lobes that showed increased glucose metabolism after surgery were mostly frontal. Hypometabolism is reversible in the ipsilateral remote area, and may be caused by inhibition via the intercortical pathway. Contralateral temporal hypometabolic zones that persist after surgery may be caused by a different mechanism, and neither indicate the presence of seizure foci nor affect the seizure outcome. ( info)

5/322. Proper name anomia after left temporal lobectomy: a patient study.

    A patient with a selective deficit in retrieving proper names after left temporal lobectomy is reported. He showed proper name anomia in conversation, in response to photographs, and in verbal descriptions, despite being able to provide semantic information about the people he was unable to name. This report provides evidence that the rostral part of the left temporal lobe plays a crucial role in processing proper names without involvement of other verbal functions. ( info)

6/322. Genital automatisms in complex partial seizures.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine which brain region is responsible for the generation of sexual automatisms. methods: Ninety consecutive patients with medically refractory focal epilepsy (74 with temporal lobe and 16 with frontal lobe epilepsy) referred to an epilepsy monitoring unit were studied. The occurrence of the following sexual automatisms was assessed during prolonged video-EEG monitoring: 1) repeatedly grabbing or fondling the genitals and 2) pelvic or truncal thrusting or similar movements. RESULTS: Five patients repeatedly fondled or grabbed their genitals during or immediately after some of their seizures. All five had temporal lobe epilepsy, as evidenced from prolonged video-EEG monitoring, high-resolution MRI, and good to excellent outcome after epilepsy surgery. Sexual automatisms did not occur with frontal lobe epilepsy. CONCLUSION: Sexual automatisms cannot be related exclusively to frontal lobe seizures. As previously proposed, apparently sexual hypermotoric pelvic or truncal movements are common in frontal lobe seizures, but this study suggests that discrete genital automatisms, like fondling and grabbing the genitals, are more common in seizures evolving from the temporal lobe. ( info)

7/322. Unidirectional olfactory hallucination associated with ipsilateral unruptured intracranial aneurysm.

    PURPOSE: We describe a patient with complex partial seizure with unidirectional olfactory aura associated with ipsilateral unruptured aneurysm. methods AND RESULTS: The patient felt a sweet pleasant smell coming from behind her right side every time before the attack. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) angiography revealed a large aneurysm at the bifurcation of the right middle cerebral artery and compression of the right orbitofrontal cortex. Small spikes were recorded from the right orbitofrontal and superior temporal gyri and from the uncus by the cortical electrodes during clipping of the aneurysm. CONCLUSIONS: The orbitofrontal cortex may have a function related to the ipsilateral directional olfactory sensation. ( info)

8/322. Meningioangiomatosis. A comprehensive analysis of clinical and laboratory features.

    Meningioangiomatosis (MA) is a rare, benign, focal lesion of the leptomeninges and underlying cerebral cortex characterized by leptomeningeal and meningovascular proliferation. It may occur sporadically or in association with neurofibromatosis type 2. Previous reports have emphasized histological and imaging features. Data on the management of these patients are sparse, and electrophysiological features of MA lesions have not been published. We assessed the clinical, electrophysiological, histopathological and imaging features as well as the surgical outcome in MA, and compared MA with and without neurofibromatosis. Seven patients with MA at our centre were investigated and their outcome was assessed. A review of the literature is included. MA exhibits a wide range of clinical, imaging, histopathological and electrophysiological features, making the diagnosis difficult. Sporadic MA cases are not associated with neurofibromatosis and the two disorders are genetically distinct. Medically refractory, localization-related epilepsy is the commonest presentation in sporadic cases, but atypical presentations also occur. Unlike sporadic cases, MA with neurofibromatosis is often found incidentally, does not produce seizures, occurs less frequently (ratio of 1:4), and is multifocal. MRI findings in MA correspond to the histological picture. However, the appearance on imaging is non-specific and may suggest cystic atrophy, angioma and tumours. Several abnormalities have been found in close proximity to MA lesions, i.e. meningioma, oligodendroglioma, arteriovenous malformation, encephalocoel and orbital erosion. In spite of histopathological diversity, MA lesions are either predominantly cellular or vascular. Immunohistochemical results are inconsistent among cases, add little to the diagnosis, and do not support a meningeal origin. Electrocorticographic recordings from the surface and within MA lesions revealed a spectrum of electrophysiological expressions. Intrinsic epileptogenicity of MA lesions was documented in some cases. Epileptogenicity was confined to the perilesional cortex in some patients and it was complex (extralesional, multifocal, generalized) in others. Only 43% of our patients became seizure-free postoperatively compared with 68% previously reported, and >70% of our patients and those in the literature continued to require antiepileptic drugs. This is in keeping with the diverse electrophysiology of MA and suggests a less optimistic postoperative outcome than previously recognized. ( info)

9/322. Extraventricular neurocytoma with ganglionic differentiation associated with complex partial seizures.

    We report an unusual case of extraventricular ("cerebral") neurocytoma with ganglion cells located in the right temporal lobe in a 9-year-old girl with complex partial seizures and precocious puberty. CT showed a calcified mass with central cystic zones. MR imaging showed a markedly hyperintense predominately solid tumor on both T1- and T2-weighted images, without appreciable contrast enhancement. Cerebral neurocytomas are histologically benign and radical surgery is curative; they should be included in the differential diagnosis of temporal lobe tumors in children. ( info)

10/322. A case of fever following antiepileptic treatment.

    A 23-year-old female patient treated with 900 mg oxcarbazepine for complex partial seizures is presented. Good seizure control and slight fever were noted a few weeks after drug administration. Reduction of oxcarbazepine and replacement with valproate resulted in a transient normothermia. Because of fever reappearance, vigabatrin was added and valproate was gradually reduced. seizures reappeared, but the body temperature fell below 37 degrees C. Substitution of valproate for lamotrigine resulted in seizure control but abnormal body temperature (37- 37.6 degrees C) was noted again. Repeated hospital admission for clinical and laboratory investigation before any change of treatment revealed no other abnormal findings. The patient's abnormal temperature possibly reflects a derangement of high-level temperature control. ( info)
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