Cases reported "Epilepsy, Frontal Lobe"

Filter by keywords:



Filtering documents. Please wait...

1/19. A case of startle epilepsy and SSMA seizures documented with subdural recordings.

    PURPOSE: To study the mechanisms of startle-induced supplementary sensorimotor area (SSMA) seizures. methods: We present a patient investigated with indwelling subdural grid electrodes covering both the SSMA and the dorsolateral frontal lobe. RESULTS: We found a simultaneous seizure onset in the right dorsolateral premotor cortex and the right SSMA. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a small subcortical lesion adjacent to the right SSMA. The patient became seizure free after resection of the lesion and the ictal-onset zone. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that an extended region of abnormally excitable tissue within the frontal lobe could facilitate the generation of startle-induced seizures. We speculate that a widespread epileptogenic zone could help to explain why some patients with SSMA or dorsolateral frontal lobe seizures are more likely to have startle-induced seizures.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = cortex
(Clic here for more details about this article)

2/19. Reduction of benzodiazepine receptor binding is related to the seizure onset zone in extratemporal focal cortical dysplasia.

    PURPOSE: Comparison of regional reduction of GABA receptor binding and seizure onset zone in patients with extratemporal epilepsy due to focal cortical dysplasia. methods: Two patients with frontal lobe epilepsy who remained seizure free after partial frontal lobe resection were investigated with magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG) and 11C-flumazenil, subdural EEG-video recordings, and postoperative benzodiazepine (BDZ)-receptor autoradiography. RESULTS: The area of reduced BDZ-receptor binding as documented by preoperative flumazenil-PET and postoperative BDZ-receptor autoradiography corresponded to the seizure onset zone and was smaller than the interictal hypometabolism documented by FDG-PET. CONCLUSION: flumazenil-PET is a useful tool for localization of the epileptogenic zone in patients with extratemporal epilepsy caused by focal cortical dysplasia. Neuronal distribution of BDZ-receptor density confirms in vivo flumazenil-PET findings. The regional reduction of BDZ-receptor binding in focal cortical dysplasia seems to be confined to the seizure onset zone and not to the extent of dysplastic cortex.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = cortex
(Clic here for more details about this article)

3/19. Clonic convulsion caused by epileptic discharges arising from the human supplementary motor area as studied by subdural recording.

    In order to help clarify the mechanism of tonic convulsion, which is commonly seen in supplementary motor area (SMA) seizures, we investigated the temporal relationship between ictal discharges arising from the SMA and the associated EMG discharges in the foot, in a patient with SMA seizures, prior to surgical treatment. The patient's intractable seizures consisted of tonic followed by clonic convulsion of the left foot also involving at times, the left hand. Ictal EEGs were investigated by subdural electrodes placed on the SMA-proper and pre-SMA, which were defined by cortical stimulation and by recording cortical-evoked potentials. Interictally, repetitive spike discharges were seen at the pre-SMA. Each seizure initially had a tonic phase associated with an electrodecremental EEG pattern. It was followed by clonic convulsion as shown by clonic EMG discharges of the left tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. It had a duration of 300 to 500 msec, and on each occasion a positive cortical activity at the pre-SMA preceded the EMG onset by 110 msec, and a negative spike at the SMA-proper preceded the EMG onset by 50 to 60 msec. Epileptic discharges originating from the pre-SMA spread to the SMA-proper and possibly also to the primary motor cortex (MI) in this patient. Since both SMA-proper and MI could elicit EMG discharges through the independent corticospinal tracts having different conduction velocities, even a single spike arising from the SMA could give rise to a long EMG burst, which may play some role in the tonic convulsion which characterizes SMA seizures.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = cortex
(Clic here for more details about this article)

4/19. Gelastic seizures: video-EEG and scintigraphic analysis of a case with a frontal focus; review of the literature and pathophysiological hypotheses.

    We report scalp EEG and SPECT findings in a young patient who experienced gelastic seizures; clinical, EEG and scintigraphic data strongly suggested a frontal focus in a context of cryptogenic epilepsy. Few cases of gelastic seizures originating in the frontal lobe have been reported in the literature, most of them involving a diencephalic hamartoma or a temporal focus although, no clinical pattern has been found to be specific for each of these three anatomical regions. The ictal laughter is of variable nature, unmotivated or associated with feelings of mirth, forced or natural, except in the case of a frontal focus where the laughter seems consistently described as forced and unmotivated. However, mirth and laughter are two dissociable clinical elements; their genesis probably involves distinct mechanisms. Anatomical considerations lead to several hypotheses concerning laughter generation: it could be a simple reactional behavior in response to a modified cognitive process, an automatic behavior or a forced action. In a few cases with a temporal focus, laughter seems directly related to a disorganization of the associative temporal cortex and may be considered as a reactional behavior. In cases with frontal focus, anterior cingulate and orbital structures would be particularly implicated in laughter genesis, although with possible different pathophysiological routes: in the first case by disconnection within the premotor mesial system or by an imbalance between premotor mesial and premotor lateral systems, and in the second case by activation of a previously conditioned orbital region.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = cortex
(Clic here for more details about this article)

5/19. Transient opercular syndrome: a manifestation of uncontrolled epileptic activity.

    Newly appearing oral motor apraxia should alert physicians to the possibility of an organic lesion in the operculum, the perisylvanian cortex. A 6 1/2-year-old boy who is being followed for complex partial seizures with secondary generalization failed to respond to carbamazepine and then to the addition of sodium valproate. The further addition of lamotrigine stopped the seizures but the patient presented with a new onset of opercular syndrome, manifested by severe oral motor apraxia with difficulties in chewing and swallowing and speech. MRI study of the brain revealed no abnormalities. The opercular syndrome resolved completely when the lamotrigine was replaced with phenobarbital, and did not recur during the follow-up period of 2 years. The EEG, however, continued to be abnormal. We conclude that opercular syndrome may be a manifestation of abnormal localized electrical activity at the operculum, even in the absence of an organic lesion on imaging studies, and it may be a marker for an epilepsy which is not easily controlled.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = cortex
(Clic here for more details about this article)

6/19. Cortical dysplasia with ossification.

    We present the first case of cortical dysplasia with extensive intracerebral ossification. An eight-year-old epilepsy patient with a calcified lesion was successfully treated by surgical intervention. Pathological examination revealed a number of bizarre dysplastic cells in the whole lesion, which consisted of an epileptogenic cerebral cortex and a nonepileptogenic hamartomatous lesion with adipose tissue, vascular tissue, calcification, and ossification. The patient was diagnosed as having cortical dysplasia with ossification. Our findings support the notion that cortical dysplasia has a multipotentiality of cellular differentiation, including various hamartomatous tissues. We suggest that cortical dysplasia should be considered as a potential cause for epileptogenicity of a hamartomatous lesion even when magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) fails to disclose cortical dysplasia.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = cortex
(Clic here for more details about this article)

7/19. Mapping of expressive language cortex using magnetic source imaging.

    The accurate localization of primary language cortex is one of the goals in the evaluation of brain surgery candidates. In this paper we describe the localization of expressive language cortex using magnetic source imaging (MSI) in a patient with refractory epilepsy caused by a tumor affecting the left inferior frontal gyrus. The magnetoencephalographic recordings during an expressive language task were co-registered with a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan obtained after subdural grid placement and provided a cluster of sources of brain activation in the vicinity of the lesion. This map of expressive language provided by MSI was verified with electrocortical stimulation before the operation. No speech problems were reported in our patient after the resection of the lesion, suggesting that MSI is an accurate non-invasive method for the pre-surgical mapping of expressive language in cases where there is clear functional risk during tumor resection.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 6
keywords = cortex
(Clic here for more details about this article)

8/19. Crossed cerebellar diaschisis secondary to refractory frontal seizures in childhood.

    We report a girl with refractory partial seizures since 7 years of age, secondary to right frontal cortical dysplasia, who developed MRI and SPECT abnormalities in the contralateral hemicerebellar cortex. These became more marked, leading to left hemicerebellar atrophy. Crossed cerebellar diaschisis has been described mostly in hemispheric stroke and supratentorial tumours, but less often in epilepsy. It is usually a transient phenomenon. This report shows that crossed cerebellar diaschisis can develop within two years of seizure onset and evolve over time.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = cortex
(Clic here for more details about this article)

9/19. Early ictal speech and motor inhibition in fronto-mesial epileptic seizures: a polygraphic study in one patient.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate ictal motor inhibition occurring during seizures in a patient with a tumor located in the left fronto-mesial pre-central cortex. methods: Awake and sleep video-polygraphic monitoring, recording scalp EEG and EMG activities from several cranial, trunk and limbs muscles, was performed in a patient with drug-resistant recurrent focal motor seizures before surgical treatment. speech/motor tasks were repeatedly administered to the patient during the recording sessions in order to evaluate the occurrence of early ictal motor inhibition. RESULTS: Thirty-four seizures were recorded during wakefulness showing a stereotyped pattern of inhibition of speech and voluntary movements followed by sequential activation of upper limb-trunk-lower limb muscles contralateral to the tumor. Polygraphic recordings showed that: (1) initial speech and motor arrest were associated with the EMG evidence of progressive muscle tone suppression in cranial and right distal upper limb muscles; (2) tonic contraction of right deltoid, biceps brachii, intercostalis and paraspinalis muscles appeared after motor inhibition; (3) tonic-clonic activity in the right tibialis anterior muscle occurred at the end of seizures. Eleven subclinical seizures were recorded during sleep showing mild focal tonic EMG activity in right side trunk muscles. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings evidenced early and somatotopically organized inhibition of voluntary movement at the beginning of epileptic seizures with fronto-mesial onset. The demonstration that speech and motor arrest were associated with progressive EMG suppression in cranial and limb muscles supports the hypothesis of motor inhibitory seizures originating in the mesial aspect of pre-motor frontal cortex.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 2
keywords = cortex
(Clic here for more details about this article)

10/19. Restricted frontomesial epileptogenic focus generating dyskinetic behavior and laughter.

    PURPOSE: Substantial data are missing about the anatomic location of frontal regions supporting gelastic seizures. methods: We report the results of stereo-electro-encephalographic recordings performed over several distinct functional premotor and executive fields in a patient whose seizures were characterized by dyskinetic behavior and ictal laughter, in the absence of cerebral MRI abnormalities. RESULTS: The epileptogenic zone was circumscribed in the anterior and ventral part of the supplementary motor area and the underlying dorsal cingulate cortex. There were no or little spreading to cortical neighboring areas. The patient is seizure-free (follow-up of 27 months) after a stereotactic electric radiofrequency lesion of the epileptogenic focus. CONCLUSION: The present data suggest that pericingulate premotor areas are involved in the triggering of the motor component of laughter. In this case, the coexistence of paroxysmal dyskinesias during laughter might reflect the involvement of specific compartment(s) of the basal ganglia.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = cortex
(Clic here for more details about this article)
| Next ->


Leave a message about 'Epilepsy, Frontal Lobe'


We do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Click here for the full disclaimer.