Cases reported "Epilepsy, Frontal Lobe"

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1/28. Confirmation of two magnetoencephalographic epileptic foci by invasive monitoring from subdural electrodes in an adolescent with right frontocentral epilepsy.

    PURPOSE: To report our evaluation of interictal two epileptic spike fields on magnetoencephalography (MEG) by using invasive intracranial monitoring in a patient without lesion on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). methods: A 15-year-old left-handed boy with a 9-year history of refractory simple partial seizures, secondarily generalized, and a normal MRI, was studied with MEG to define magnetic spike sources, followed by invasive intracranial monitoring with subdural electrodes to delineate the epileptogenic zone and eloquent function pursuant to focal cortical excision. RESULTS: MEG demonstrated two spike foci on the right middle frontal and inferior rolandic areas adjacent to the sensory area. Ictal recordings during prolonged invasive monitoring from subdural electrodes revealed two epileptogenic zones in the same locations as those defined by MEG. Focal cortical excision was performed of each epileptogenic zone. The patient has been seizure free for 24 months without neurologic deficit. CONCLUSIONS: Magnetic source imaging is a valuable adjunct in the planning of subdural grid placement in epilepsy surgery, particularly in patients in whom conventional imaging fails to reveal a lesion.
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ranking = 1
keywords = simple
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2/28. Gelastic seizures: video-EEG and scintigraphic analysis of a case with a frontal focus; review of the literature and pathophysiological hypotheses.

    We report scalp EEG and SPECT findings in a young patient who experienced gelastic seizures; clinical, EEG and scintigraphic data strongly suggested a frontal focus in a context of cryptogenic epilepsy. Few cases of gelastic seizures originating in the frontal lobe have been reported in the literature, most of them involving a diencephalic hamartoma or a temporal focus although, no clinical pattern has been found to be specific for each of these three anatomical regions. The ictal laughter is of variable nature, unmotivated or associated with feelings of mirth, forced or natural, except in the case of a frontal focus where the laughter seems consistently described as forced and unmotivated. However, mirth and laughter are two dissociable clinical elements; their genesis probably involves distinct mechanisms. Anatomical considerations lead to several hypotheses concerning laughter generation: it could be a simple reactional behavior in response to a modified cognitive process, an automatic behavior or a forced action. In a few cases with a temporal focus, laughter seems directly related to a disorganization of the associative temporal cortex and may be considered as a reactional behavior. In cases with frontal focus, anterior cingulate and orbital structures would be particularly implicated in laughter genesis, although with possible different pathophysiological routes: in the first case by disconnection within the premotor mesial system or by an imbalance between premotor mesial and premotor lateral systems, and in the second case by activation of a previously conditioned orbital region.
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keywords = simple
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3/28. Transient opercular syndrome: a manifestation of uncontrolled epileptic activity.

    Newly appearing oral motor apraxia should alert physicians to the possibility of an organic lesion in the operculum, the perisylvanian cortex. A 6 1/2-year-old boy who is being followed for complex partial seizures with secondary generalization failed to respond to carbamazepine and then to the addition of sodium valproate. The further addition of lamotrigine stopped the seizures but the patient presented with a new onset of opercular syndrome, manifested by severe oral motor apraxia with difficulties in chewing and swallowing and speech. MRI study of the brain revealed no abnormalities. The opercular syndrome resolved completely when the lamotrigine was replaced with phenobarbital, and did not recur during the follow-up period of 2 years. The EEG, however, continued to be abnormal. We conclude that opercular syndrome may be a manifestation of abnormal localized electrical activity at the operculum, even in the absence of an organic lesion on imaging studies, and it may be a marker for an epilepsy which is not easily controlled.
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ranking = 1.9825285506687
keywords = complex
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4/28. Frontal nonconvulsive status epilepticus associated with high-dose tiagabine therapy in a child with familial bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria.

    PURPOSE: Antiepileptic drugs are known to exacerbate absence and myoclonic seizures, especially in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsies. Exacerbation of nonconvulsive generalized seizures in patients with partial epilepsy is less common. Recently, however, a number of cases of putative generalized nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) or NCSE without further specification have been reported in patients with chronic partial epilepsy treated with the gamma-aminobutyric acid reuptake inhibitor tiagabine. Although complex partial status epilepticus during tiagabine therapy has also been reported, possible precipitation of NCSE specifically associated with frontal lobe discharges does not appear to have been recognized. In this communication, we describe the case of a boy with familial bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria who developed frontal NCSE after being stabilized on high-dose tiagabine methods: A 12-year-old boy with familial bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria, mental retardation, and refractory partial seizures was administered tiagabine in addition to sodium valproate. The tiagabine dosage was increased gradually up to 10 mg t.i.d. (1 mg/kg per day), resulting in complete seizure control. RESULTS: After 1 week on maintenance treatment, seizures were completely controlled, but the child developed hypoactivity, decreased reactivity, and affective detachment. An EEG recording revealed subcontinuous sharp-wave discharges with irregular runs of atypical spike-wave complexes over the anterior regions of both hemispheres, consistent with a diagnosis of frontal NCSE. A reduction in tiagabine dosage to 15 mg/day led to complete regression of the behavioral and affective changes and to disappearance of the subcontinuous EEG discharges. CONCLUSIONS: Although tiagabine-induced NCSE has been described previously, particularly in patients with preexisting spike-wave abnormalities, this is the first report that identifies its potential role in the precipitation of frontal NCSE.
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ranking = 362141.31290449
keywords = status epilepticus, epilepticus, partial status, status, complex
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5/28. Acquired epileptiform opercular syndrome: a case report and results of single photon emission computed tomography and computer-assisted electroencephalographic analysis.

    We report here a girl aged 5 years 3 months with cryptogenic localization-related epilepsy who showed a prolonged episode characterized by dysarthria, dysphagia, drooling and paresis of the right arm associated with almost continuous diffuse sharp-slow wave complexes during sleep. These symptoms were not directly related to seizures or to each sharp-slow wave complex revealed by examination during the video electroencephalographic (EEG) recording. The interictal single photon emission compute tomography showed a localized high perfusion area in the left posterior frontal region. The introduction of clonazepam completely controlled the clinical symptoms as well as the EEG abnormality within 2 weeks. After 4 months of remission, a similar episode recurred which was associated with aggravation of EEG. The clinical and EEG characteristics of this patient were identical to those of acquired epileptiform opercular syndrome (AEOS), a newly proposed epileptic syndrome, in which a transient operculum syndrome develops in association with continuous spike-and-wave activity during slow sleep (CSWS). Computer-assisted EEG analysis demonstrated that the epileptic EEG focus was located in the left sylvian fissure, and produced secondary bilateral synchronous sharp-slow complexes. The present study further supports the hypothesis that the electrical interference by CSWS creates bilateral opercular dysfunction through the mechanism of secondary bilateral synchrony, thus producing AEOS.
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ranking = 5.9475856520061
keywords = complex
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6/28. Benign parasomnias and nocturnal frontal epilepsy: differential diagnosis in a case report.

    We report the case of a 13-year-old boy who complained of complex motor episodes during sleep characterized by sudden arousal followed by deambulation associated with automatic movements and vocalization. His family history included both epileptic and psychiatric disorders. The patient himself presented psychopathologic traits and adaptive difficulties. In support of an epileptic origin of these phenomena were the stereotyped fashion in which they appeared and their responsiveness to carbamazepine. We classified the present case as a nocturnal frontal epilepsy with variable manifestations that can be classified as paroxysmal arousals, paroxysmal dystonia, and epileptic nocturnal wanderings. It was possible to differentiate such events from the most common parasomnias on the basis of videopolysomnographic studies.
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ranking = 1.9825285506687
keywords = complex
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7/28. Ring chromosome 20 epilepsy syndrome in children: electroclinical features.

    Ring chromosome 20 mosaicism is associated with dysmorphic features, mental retardation, and intractable seizures, including recurrent episodes of nonconvulsive status epilepticus. The authors' findings in four children, all without dysmorphic features, indicate that mental deterioration and frequent subtle nocturnal frontal lobe seizures, associated with a characteristic EEG pattern, represent prominent additional clinical features not previously described in this syndrome. This emphasizes the importance of full-night video-EEG in children with frontal lobe seizures and cognitive deterioration.
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ranking = 58310.562420341
keywords = status epilepticus, epilepticus, status
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8/28. Unilateral striatal damage following status epilepticus of ipsilateral frontal lobe origin.

    A 35-year-old man with an old contusional haematoma in the right frontal lobe developed status epilepticus (SE) of right frontal origin. On magnetic resonance (MR) images 10 days after SE, the right striatum showed signal enhancement with Gd-DTPA administration. Subsequent MR imaging 1 month later indicated prolonged T1 and T2 relaxation times in the right striatum. Prolonged seizure activity in the frontal lobe may have induced excitatory neurotoxicity in the ipsilateral striatum, with occurrence of delayed neuronal damage as a result.
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ranking = 291552.81210171
keywords = status epilepticus, epilepticus, status
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9/28. Partial status epilepticus in benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes: are independent right and left seizures a risk factor?

    PURPOSE: To describe an association between continuous simple partial seizures and independent right and left partial seizures in children with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BCECTS). methods: Three children with BCECTS and episodes of continuous simple partial seizures are described. RESULTS: All three children had a history of typical rolandic seizures occurring on the right and left sides of the body on different occasions. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of independent right and left rolandic seizures in children with BCECTS may be a predisposing factor for the development of partial status epilepticus.
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ranking = 303828.78542705
keywords = status epilepticus, epilepticus, partial status, status, simple
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10/28. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus with frontal features: quantitating severity of subclinical epileptiform discharges provides a marker for treatment efficacy, recurrence and outcome.

    Nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is difficult to diagnose but is an important cause of cognitive impairment. Electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring is required for diagnosis and treatment. Little is known regarding the stability of subclinical epileptiform discharges (SEDs) preceding NCSE nor what strategies may optimize patient outcomes. We report extended follow-up of patients with recurrent frontal SEDs, integrating EEG and cognitive findings before and following treatment of NCSE, and show that quantitating SED severity provides an objective marker of treatment efficacy and recurrence.
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ranking = 291552.81210171
keywords = status epilepticus, epilepticus, status
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