Cases reported "Epilepsy, Frontal Lobe"

Filter by keywords:



Filtering documents. Please wait...

1/20. Secondary bilateral synchrony due to fronto-mesial lesions. An invasive recording study.

    frontal lobe epilepsies may present difficulties in focus localization in the pre-operative work-up for epilepsy surgery. This is specially true in patients with normal MRIs. We report on a 16 years-old girl that started with seizures by the age of 8 years. They were brief nocturnal episodes with automatisms such as bicycling and boxing. Seizure frequency ranged from 4-10 per night. scalp EEG showed few right frontal convexity spiking and intense secondary bilateral synchrony (SBS). High resolution MRI directed to the frontal lobes was normal. Ictal SPECT suggested a right fronto-lateral focus. Ictal video-EEG showed no focal onset. She was submitted to invasive recordings after subdural plates implantation. electrodes covered all the frontal convexity and mesial surface bilaterally. Ictal recordings disclosed stereotyped seizures starting from the right mesial frontal. Using a high-resolution tool to measure intra and interhemispheric latencies, the timing and direction of seizure spread from the right fronto-mesial region were studied. Motor strip mapping was performed by means of electrical stimulation. She was submitted to a right frontal lobe resection, 1.5 cm ahead of the motor strip and has been seizure free since surgery (8 months). Pathological examination found a 4 mm area of cortical dysplasia. Invasive studies are needed to allow adequate localization in patients with non-localizatory non-invasive work-up and may lead to excellent results in relation to seizures after surgery.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = frequency
(Clic here for more details about this article)

2/20. Frontal nonconvulsive status epilepticus associated with high-dose tiagabine therapy in a child with familial bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria.

    PURPOSE: Antiepileptic drugs are known to exacerbate absence and myoclonic seizures, especially in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsies. Exacerbation of nonconvulsive generalized seizures in patients with partial epilepsy is less common. Recently, however, a number of cases of putative generalized nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) or NCSE without further specification have been reported in patients with chronic partial epilepsy treated with the gamma-aminobutyric acid reuptake inhibitor tiagabine. Although complex partial status epilepticus during tiagabine therapy has also been reported, possible precipitation of NCSE specifically associated with frontal lobe discharges does not appear to have been recognized. In this communication, we describe the case of a boy with familial bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria who developed frontal NCSE after being stabilized on high-dose tiagabine methods: A 12-year-old boy with familial bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria, mental retardation, and refractory partial seizures was administered tiagabine in addition to sodium valproate. The tiagabine dosage was increased gradually up to 10 mg t.i.d. (1 mg/kg per day), resulting in complete seizure control. RESULTS: After 1 week on maintenance treatment, seizures were completely controlled, but the child developed hypoactivity, decreased reactivity, and affective detachment. An EEG recording revealed subcontinuous sharp-wave discharges with irregular runs of atypical spike-wave complexes over the anterior regions of both hemispheres, consistent with a diagnosis of frontal NCSE. A reduction in tiagabine dosage to 15 mg/day led to complete regression of the behavioral and affective changes and to disappearance of the subcontinuous EEG discharges. CONCLUSIONS: Although tiagabine-induced NCSE has been described previously, particularly in patients with preexisting spike-wave abnormalities, this is the first report that identifies its potential role in the precipitation of frontal NCSE.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 3.8095095390711
keywords = wave
(Clic here for more details about this article)

3/20. Idiopathic generalized epilepsy presenting with hemiconvulsive seizures.

    PURPOSE: Unilateral seizures, or hemiconvulsive attacks, are motor seizures with tonic and/or clonic phenomena that involve only one side of the body. methods: We describe three adolescents who presented with hemiconvulsive seizures and were found to have 3-cps generalized spike-and-wave discharges on ictal and/or interictal EEG. All had normal neuroimaging studies. Two patients had been previously treated with carbamazepine, which led to a partial response in one patient. RESULTS: All three patients, however, are now seizure free on either sodium valproate or a combination of sodium valproate and lamotrigine. We believe the electroclinical diagnosis is that of idiopathic generalized epilepsy. CONCLUSIONS: Idiopathic generalized epilepsy presenting with hemiconvulsive seizures has not, to our knowledge, been previously described. However, the correct diagnosis of an idiopathic generalized seizure disorder, as opposed to a partial seizure disorder, has important treatment implications. The possible mechanism of hemiconvulsive seizures in idiopathic generalized epilepsy is discussed.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1.2698365130237
keywords = wave
(Clic here for more details about this article)

4/20. Acquired epileptiform opercular syndrome: a case report and results of single photon emission computed tomography and computer-assisted electroencephalographic analysis.

    We report here a girl aged 5 years 3 months with cryptogenic localization-related epilepsy who showed a prolonged episode characterized by dysarthria, dysphagia, drooling and paresis of the right arm associated with almost continuous diffuse sharp-slow wave complexes during sleep. These symptoms were not directly related to seizures or to each sharp-slow wave complex revealed by examination during the video electroencephalographic (EEG) recording. The interictal single photon emission compute tomography showed a localized high perfusion area in the left posterior frontal region. The introduction of clonazepam completely controlled the clinical symptoms as well as the EEG abnormality within 2 weeks. After 4 months of remission, a similar episode recurred which was associated with aggravation of EEG. The clinical and EEG characteristics of this patient were identical to those of acquired epileptiform opercular syndrome (AEOS), a newly proposed epileptic syndrome, in which a transient operculum syndrome develops in association with continuous spike-and-wave activity during slow sleep (CSWS). Computer-assisted EEG analysis demonstrated that the epileptic EEG focus was located in the left sylvian fissure, and produced secondary bilateral synchronous sharp-slow complexes. The present study further supports the hypothesis that the electrical interference by CSWS creates bilateral opercular dysfunction through the mechanism of secondary bilateral synchrony, thus producing AEOS.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 3.8095095390711
keywords = wave
(Clic here for more details about this article)

5/20. Fractionated stereotactically guided radiotherapy of pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PURPOSE: This prospective study evaluated the efficacy of fractionated stereotactically guided radiotherapy (SRT) as a treatment of pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy. patients AND methods: Inclusion criteria were patients aged between 17 and 65 years with unilateral temporal focus, without sufficient epilepsy control by antiepileptic drugs or neurosurgery. Two groups of 6 patients each were treated with 21 Gy (7 times 3 Gy) and 30 Gy (15 times 2 Gy). Study end points were change in seizure frequency, intensity, seizure length and neuropsychological parameters. RESULTS: All patients experienced a marked reduction in seizure frequency. The mean reduction of seizures was 37% (range 9-77%, i.e. seizures reduced from a monthly mean number of 11.75 to 7.52) at 18 months following radiation treatment and 46% (23-94%, i.e. 0.2-23 seizures per month) during the whole follow-up time. Seizure length was reduced in 5 out of 11 patients and intensity of seizures in 7 out of 11 patients. CONCLUSION: radiotherapy was identified as a safe and effective treatment for pharmacoresistant epilepsy since a good reduction of seizure frequency during longer follow-up was observed. SRT means an appropriate alternative for patients with contraindication against neurosurgery or insufficient seizure reduction after neurosurgery.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 3
keywords = frequency
(Clic here for more details about this article)

6/20. epilepsy with reversible bulbar dysfunction.

    In patients with focal epilepsy, focal neurological dysfunction can occur due to status epilepticus and also as a post-ictal phenomenon. Bulbar dysfunction as evident by drooling, dysarthria, swallowing difficulties, and palatal-glossalpharyngeal weakness has been reported in conjunction with epilepsy. This is non-progressive and is correlated in its severity with the frequency of seizures. Accompanying EEG discharges are often localized to rolandic areas that cortically represent oral movements and salivation. We report a 6-year-old male and a 6 1/2-year-old female with progressive bulbar dysfunction resulting from epilepsy. Ictal EEGs in patient 1 did not confirm a diagnosis of epilepsy. With no evidence of a cortical or brainstem focus from EEG or MRI, it is very difficult to explain the mechanism of bulbar dysfunction. The complete restoration of bulbar function after treatment with antiepileptic drugs demonstrates the need to consider epilepsy in similar clinical situations.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = frequency
(Clic here for more details about this article)

7/20. Cardiac asystole in epilepsy: clinical and neurophysiologic features.

    PURPOSE: Cardiac asystole provoked by epileptic seizures is a rare but important complication in epilepsy and is supposed to be relevant to the pathogenesis of sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (SUDEP). We sought to determine the frequency of this complication in a population of patients with medically intractable epilepsy and to analyze the correlation between EEG, electrocardiogram (ECG), and clinical features obtained from long-term video-EEG monitoring. methods: Retrospective analysis of the clinical records of hospitalized patients from May 1992 to June 2001 who underwent long-term video-/EEG monitoring. RESULTS: Of a total of 1,244 patients, five patients had cardiac asystole in the course of ictal events. In these patients, 11 asystolic events, between 4 and 60 s long in a total of 19 seizures, were registered. All seizures had a focal origin with simple partial seizures (n = 13), complex partial seizures (n = 4), and secondarily generalized seizures (n = 2). One patient showed the longest asystole ever reported (60 s) because of a seizure. Cardiac asystole occurred in two patients with left-sided temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and in three patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE; two left-sided, one bifrontal). Two patients reported previous cardiac disease, but only one had a pathologic ECG by the time of admission. Two patients had a simultaneous central ictal apnea during the asystole. None of the patients had ongoing deficits due to the asystole. CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm that seizure-induced asystole is a rare complication. The event appeared only in focal epilepsies (frontal and temporal) with a lateralization to the left side. A newly diagnosed or known cardiac disorder could be a risk factor for ictal asystole. Abnormally long postictal periods with altered consciousness might point to reduced cerebral perfusion during the event because of ictal asystole. Central ictal apnea could be a frequent associated phenomenon.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = frequency
(Clic here for more details about this article)

8/20. eating epilepsy characterized by periodic spasms.

    seizures induced by eating are generally considered rare. eating epilepsy is a kind of reflex epilepsy. We report two patients aged 11 and 16, with seizures provoked by eating. The eating-provoked seizures in both patients were a series of tonic spasms. Both ictal EEGs showed a periodic pattern characterized by diffuse high voltage slow wave. These findings were consistent with periodic spasms described by Gobbi et al. The ECD were widely distributed in both patients, although that of Patient 1 was partially clustered in the right frontal region. This is the first report of patients with periodic spasms induced by eating.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1.2698365130237
keywords = wave
(Clic here for more details about this article)

9/20. Restricted frontomesial epileptogenic focus generating dyskinetic behavior and laughter.

    PURPOSE: Substantial data are missing about the anatomic location of frontal regions supporting gelastic seizures. methods: We report the results of stereo-electro-encephalographic recordings performed over several distinct functional premotor and executive fields in a patient whose seizures were characterized by dyskinetic behavior and ictal laughter, in the absence of cerebral MRI abnormalities. RESULTS: The epileptogenic zone was circumscribed in the anterior and ventral part of the supplementary motor area and the underlying dorsal cingulate cortex. There were no or little spreading to cortical neighboring areas. The patient is seizure-free (follow-up of 27 months) after a stereotactic electric radiofrequency lesion of the epileptogenic focus. CONCLUSION: The present data suggest that pericingulate premotor areas are involved in the triggering of the motor component of laughter. In this case, the coexistence of paroxysmal dyskinesias during laughter might reflect the involvement of specific compartment(s) of the basal ganglia.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = frequency
(Clic here for more details about this article)

10/20. nicotine as an antiepileptic agent in ADNFLE: an N-of-one study.

    PURPOSE: To test nicotine patch treatment for a patient with a defined mutation for autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) whose seizures were refractory to standard antiepileptic therapy. methods: Open and double-blind trials of nicotine patches in an "n-of-one" study. The double-blind trial comprised periods during which either placebo or nicotine patches were each used for three periods of 2 weeks, randomized in a double-blind manner. RESULTS: In an open study, nicotine patches reduced seizures from 1.65 /- 2.36 to 0.01 /- 0.0 seizures per day (p < 0.0001). In a double-blinded placebo-controlled phase, the average frequency of seizures on nicotine versus placebo was 0 /- 0 versus 0.56 /- 1.14 seizures per day (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: nicotine patches may be of benefit to some individuals with ADNFLE.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = frequency
(Clic here for more details about this article)
| Next ->


Leave a message about 'Epilepsy, Frontal Lobe'


We do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Click here for the full disclaimer.