Cases reported "Epilepsy, Partial, Motor"

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1/6. epilepsy and perisylvian lipoma/cortical dysplasia complex.

    Intracranial lipomas are congenital malformations composed of mature adipocytes. They are usually located in the midline, particularly in the pericallosal region, a hemispheric location accounting for only 3 to 7% of cases. review of the literature found 21 previous cases of hemispheric lipoma. Although hemispheric cerebral lipomas are rare, association with epilepsy appears to be frequent. We have recently studied two patients in whom epilepsy was the first clinical manifestation of hemispheric cerebral lipoma in the sylvian region. The patients presented with simple motor partial seizures as the first manifestation of the lesion. Neurological examination was normal. MRI disclosed in both cases a lesion involving the sylvian fissure with characteristics of the lipid signal. MRI also demonstrated abnormalities involving the cerebral cortex in the vicinity of the lesion (pachygyria-like aspect). Partial excision of the lesion was achieved in one patient but was followed by a worsening of seizures and neurological condition (hemiparesis). According to the literature, the prognosis for epilepsy in patients with hemispheric lipoma appears good. Several other arguments support non-surgical management: the lesion is benign and can be identified with a high degree of certainty by imaging; surgery is technically difficult due to adherence to adjacent vascular and cerebral structures and hypervascularity; location near functional brain tissue increases the risk of postoperative sequelae. In addition, mechanisms of epilepsy probably involve vascular and cortical dysplasic abnormalities. In consideration of the complexity of the lesion, hemispheric lipomas are more appropriately classified with localized cortical malformations rather than as simple extracerebral malformations.
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2/6. Asymmetry of cortical excitability revealed by transcranial stimulation in a patient with focal motor epilepsy and cortical myoclonus.

    motor cortex excitability was analyzed with transcranial stimulation in a patient with motor focal epilepsy and cortical myoclonus originating from the right motor cortex. The motor threshold to single transcranial magnetic shocks, but not to electric stimuli, was higher in the epileptic motor cortex than the normal left motor cortex. Single magnetic shocks elicited a short cortical silent period (50 ms) in the epileptic motor cortex. Paired magnetic stimuli also showed reduced cortico-cortical inhibition. These findings reveal an asymmetry in cortical excitability presumably due to impaired inhibition in the epileptic motor cortex.
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keywords = cortex
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3/6. Electroencephalographic dipoles of spikes with and without myoclonic jerks caused by epilepsia partialis continua.

    We used electroencephalographic (EEG) dipole analysis to investigate the generators of spikes with and without myoclonic jerks in a 12-year-old patient with epilepsia partialis continua secondary to left parietal cortical dysplasia. We recorded EEG and right wrist extensor electromyography (EMG) and collected 42 spikes with jerks (jerking spikes) and 42 spikes without jerks (nonjerking spikes). We applied a single moving dipole model to the individual and averaged spikes. Dipoles at the negative peak of individual jerking and nonjerking spikes were localized in the dysplastic area. At the onset of the averaged jerking spike that preceded the EMG discharges by 20 ms, the dipole was in the motor cortex, whereas for the averaged nonjerking spike, the dipole was in the sensory cortex. The dipole moment at averaged jerking spike onset was twice that of the averaged nonjerking spike. Electroencephalographic dipole analysis of averaged spikes differentiated the generator of jerking and nonjerking spikes in epilepsia partialis continua. Individual dipoles demonstrated the area of epileptogenic cortical dysplasia.
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keywords = cortex
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4/6. Focal clonus elicited by electrical stimulation of the motor cortex in humans.

    Focal clonic seizures are a frequent epileptic phenomenon. However, there are little data about their pathomechanism. In four patients with focal epilepsy and subdural electrodes, focal clonus was elicited by electrical stimulation of the motor cortex. Three additional patients underwent intraoperative stimulation of the spinal cord. Rhythmic clonic muscle responses were elicited by cortical stimulation with 20-50 Hz. The clonus consisted of simultaneous trains of compound muscle action potentials (CMAP) in agonistic and antagonistic muscles alternating with periods of muscular silence despite continuous stimulation. Clonus frequency decreased from 4.0-8.0 Hz at 50 Hz stimulation to 3.0-3.5 Hz at 20 Hz paralleled by a prolongation of the trains of CMAP. The stimulation frequency correlated with the number of stimuli blocked during relaxation. During the stable stimulation periods, the clonus frequency decreased over time. The number of stimuli which formed a train of CMAP and which were blocked during relaxation increased towards the end of the stimulation periods. Increasing intensity of stimulation at the same frequency converted a clonic to a tonic response. There was always an 1:1 relationship between stimulus and CMAP during spinal cord stimulation. We hypothesize that during cortical stimulation, clonus is elicited by synchronous activation of pyramidal tract (PT) neurons which results in excitation of intracortical GABA(B)ergic interneurons by recurrent axon-collaterals. This leads to stepwise hyperpolarization of PT neurons intermittently suppressing the output of PT neurons despite continuous stimulation. This mechanism can explain our finding that temporal and spatial summation of the stimuli were needed for clonus generation.
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keywords = cortex
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5/6. Double-blind, randomized controlled pilot study of bilateral cerebellar stimulation for treatment of intractable motor seizures.

    PURPOSE: The efficacy and safety of cerebellar stimulation (CS) was reevaluated in a double-blind, randomized controlled pilot study on five patients with medically refractory motor seizures, and especially generalized tonic-clonic seizures. methods: Bilateral modified four-contact plate electrodes were placed on the cerebellar superomedial surface through two suboccipital burr holes. The implanted programmable, battery-operated stimulator was adjusted to 2.0 microC/cm(2)/phase with the stimulator case as the anode; at this level, no patient experienced the stimulation. patients served as their own controls, comparing their seizure frequency in preimplant basal phase (BL) of 3 months with the postimplant phases from 10 months to 4 years (average, eight epochs of 3 months each). During the month after implantation, the stimulators were not activated. The patient and the evaluator were blinded as to the next 3-month epoch, as to whether stimulation was used. The patients were randomized into two groups: three with the stimulator ON and two with the stimulator OFF. After a 4-month postimplantation period, all patients had their stimulator ON until the end of the study and beyond. Medication was maintained unchanged throughout the study. EEG paroxysmal discharges also were measured. RESULTS: Generalized tonic-clonic seizures: in the initial 3-month double-blind phase, two patients were monitored with the stimulation OFF; no change was found in the mean seizure rate (patient 1, 100%, and patient 5, 85%; mean, 93%), whereas the three patients with the stimulation initially ON had a reduction of seizures to 33% (patient 2, 21%; patient 3, 46%; patient 4, 32%) with a statistically significant difference between OFF and ON phase of p = 0.023. All five patients then were stimulated and monitored. At the end of the next 6 months of stimulation, the five patients had a mean seizure rate of 41% (14-75%) of the BL. The second patient developed an infection in the implanted system, which had to be removed after 11 months of stimulation; the seizures were being reduced with stimulation to a mean of one per month from a mean of 4.7 per month (BL level) before stimulation. At the end of 24 months, three patients were monitored with stimulation, resulting in a further reduction of seizures to 24% (11-38%). Tonic seizures: four patients had these seizures, which at 24 months were reduced to 43% (10-76%). Follow-up surgery was necessary in four patients because of infection in one patient and lead/electrode displacement needing repositioning in three patients. The statistical analysis showed a significant reduction in tonic-clonic seizures (p < 0.001) and tonic seizures (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The superomedial cerebellar cortex appears to be a significantly effective and safe target for electrical stimulation for decreasing motor seizures over the long term. The effect shows generalized tonic-clonic seizure reduction after 1-2 months and continues to decrease over the first 6 months and then maintains this effectiveness over the study period of 2 years and beyond.
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keywords = cortex
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6/6. Prolonged deficits after focal inhibitory seizures.

    INTRODUCTION: seizures are most commonly associated with positive phenomena such as tonic, clonic or myoclonic movements, automatisms, paresthesias and hallucinations. Negative phenomena, however, are not an uncommon manifestation of seizure activity. Examples of negative seizure phenomena include speech arrest, aphasia, amaurosis, amnesia, numbness, deafness, neglect and atonic seizures. Less commonly described in the literature are focal inhibitory motor seizures. methods AND RESULTS: Two patients presenting with rapidly progressive, prolonged hemiparesis, sensory neglect and hemi-visual field obscuration are described. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain did not reveal progression of known structural lesions or new lesions. The superficial cortex of the hemisphere contralateral to the hemiparesis and sensory neglect enhanced diffusely with gadolinium on T1-weighted MRI images. electroencephalography demonstrated periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges (PLEDs) in one patient and lateralized suppression and slowing in the other patient. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) revealed hyperperfusion in the hemisphere contralateral to the hemiparesis and sensory neglect. The changes seen on MRI and SPECT resolved with resolution of the symptoms. CONCLUSION: Taken together with the clinical history, the results from these investigations suggest focal inhibitory seizure as the underlying etiology. A review of the literature and investigations helpful in making this difficult diagnosis are provided.
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keywords = cortex
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