Cases reported "Epilepsy, Partial, Motor"

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1/4. Changes in cerebral hemodynamics during simple partial motor seizures.

    Changes in cerebral perfusion were studied during nine short-lasting simple partial motor seizures (SPS) in an 11-year-old girl. blood flow velocity changes in both middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) were assessed by transcranial Doppler sonography during simultaneous EEG monitoring. Within 7.4 /- 1.4 s after electroencephalographic seizure onset, flow velocity in the MCA ipsilateral to the electrical discharges started to increase and then gradually rose up to 70% above baseline values. Spread of the epileptic activity to the other hemisphere in the late stage of seizure was associated with a slight increase in blood flow velocity (<30%) in the contralateral MCA. After the end of the seizure, flow velocities returned to baseline within 47 /- 7 s. Our findings indicate that focal epileptic seizures evoke asymmetric perfusion increases which are closely related to the onset and cessation of the electroencephalographic seizure activity.
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2/4. epilepsy and perisylvian lipoma/cortical dysplasia complex.

    Intracranial lipomas are congenital malformations composed of mature adipocytes. They are usually located in the midline, particularly in the pericallosal region, a hemispheric location accounting for only 3 to 7% of cases. review of the literature found 21 previous cases of hemispheric lipoma. Although hemispheric cerebral lipomas are rare, association with epilepsy appears to be frequent. We have recently studied two patients in whom epilepsy was the first clinical manifestation of hemispheric cerebral lipoma in the sylvian region. The patients presented with simple motor partial seizures as the first manifestation of the lesion. Neurological examination was normal. MRI disclosed in both cases a lesion involving the sylvian fissure with characteristics of the lipid signal. MRI also demonstrated abnormalities involving the cerebral cortex in the vicinity of the lesion (pachygyria-like aspect). Partial excision of the lesion was achieved in one patient but was followed by a worsening of seizures and neurological condition (hemiparesis). According to the literature, the prognosis for epilepsy in patients with hemispheric lipoma appears good. Several other arguments support non-surgical management: the lesion is benign and can be identified with a high degree of certainty by imaging; surgery is technically difficult due to adherence to adjacent vascular and cerebral structures and hypervascularity; location near functional brain tissue increases the risk of postoperative sequelae. In addition, mechanisms of epilepsy probably involve vascular and cortical dysplasic abnormalities. In consideration of the complexity of the lesion, hemispheric lipomas are more appropriately classified with localized cortical malformations rather than as simple extracerebral malformations.
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keywords = simple, complex
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3/4. Periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges in influenza B-associated encephalopathy.

    An 18-year-old woman presented with coma, hemicomvulsions, and transient periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges (PLEDs). Serological tests were positive for influenza B, and cerebrospinal fluid PCR for herpes simplex virus dna was negative. magnetic resonance imaging later showed abnormal signal intensity in the temporal lobe ipsilateral to the PLEDs. Influenza-associated encephalopathy may cause hemiconvulsions and PLEDs, and can mimic herpes simplex encephalitis.
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4/4. Longitudinal MR findings in a patient with hemimegalencephaly associated with tuberous sclerosis.

    A patient with an unusual association between tuberous sclerosis complex and hemimegalencephaly is reported. At 2 days of age, CT scan disclosed right hemimegalencephaly with periventricular faint calcification. At 1 month of age, magnetic resonance imaging showed right hemimegalencephaly with T1 and T2 shortening. The right frontal and parietal lobes were compatible with transmantle dysplasia. At 6 months of age, the right hemisphere had decreased in size. Atrophic changes continued to progress until 3 years of age. Periventricular calcification in the right hemisphere became marked with age. The patient developed frequent partial motor seizures from 6 weeks of age and infantile spasms from 5 months of age. Electroencephalogram revealed low amplitude of background activities in the right frontal area. The cause of this atrophic change in the hemimegalencephalic hemisphere, which could be a hamartomatous lesion, remains unknown.
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