Cases reported "Epilepsy, Partial, Motor"

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1/20. Changes in cerebral hemodynamics during simple partial motor seizures.

    Changes in cerebral perfusion were studied during nine short-lasting simple partial motor seizures (SPS) in an 11-year-old girl. blood flow velocity changes in both middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) were assessed by transcranial Doppler sonography during simultaneous EEG monitoring. Within 7.4 /- 1.4 s after electroencephalographic seizure onset, flow velocity in the MCA ipsilateral to the electrical discharges started to increase and then gradually rose up to 70% above baseline values. Spread of the epileptic activity to the other hemisphere in the late stage of seizure was associated with a slight increase in blood flow velocity (<30%) in the contralateral MCA. After the end of the seizure, flow velocities returned to baseline within 47 /- 7 s. Our findings indicate that focal epileptic seizures evoke asymmetric perfusion increases which are closely related to the onset and cessation of the electroencephalographic seizure activity. ( info)

2/20. Repetitive sleep starts in neurologically impaired children: an unusual non-epileptic manifestation in otherwise epileptic subjects.

    sleep starts, also called hypnagogic or hypnic jerks, are bilateral, sometimes asymmetric, usually single, brief body jerks that coincide with sleep onset. We describe sleep starts occurring repetitively in three epileptic children with spastic-dystonic diplegia and mental retardation. Repetitive sleep starts began at age 18 months in two children and at 9 months in the third. All three children had had feto-neonatal asphyxia; two presented with spastic and one with dystonic tetraparesis. One had West syndrome and two had partial motor seizures in the first year of life. seizures were controlled in all three patients by antiepileptic drug therapy. Video/EEG recordings of all the children during the afternoon nap revealed clusters of sleep starts during the transition between wakefulness and sleep. Cluster lasted 4-15 min and comprised from twenty to twenty-nine contractions. The EEG counterpart of the event sometimes showed an arousal response, at times inducing complete awakening. Repetitive sleep starts should be recognized and clearly differentiated from epileptic seizures, especially if they appear in epileptic subjects. In neurologically compromised patients, they could represent an intensification of an otherwise normal event, due to the lack of strong inhibitory influence of the pyramidal tract resulting from the pyramidal lesion. ( info)

3/20. epilepsy and perisylvian lipoma/cortical dysplasia complex.

    Intracranial lipomas are congenital malformations composed of mature adipocytes. They are usually located in the midline, particularly in the pericallosal region, a hemispheric location accounting for only 3 to 7% of cases. review of the literature found 21 previous cases of hemispheric lipoma. Although hemispheric cerebral lipomas are rare, association with epilepsy appears to be frequent. We have recently studied two patients in whom epilepsy was the first clinical manifestation of hemispheric cerebral lipoma in the sylvian region. The patients presented with simple motor partial seizures as the first manifestation of the lesion. Neurological examination was normal. MRI disclosed in both cases a lesion involving the sylvian fissure with characteristics of the lipid signal. MRI also demonstrated abnormalities involving the cerebral cortex in the vicinity of the lesion (pachygyria-like aspect). Partial excision of the lesion was achieved in one patient but was followed by a worsening of seizures and neurological condition (hemiparesis). According to the literature, the prognosis for epilepsy in patients with hemispheric lipoma appears good. Several other arguments support non-surgical management: the lesion is benign and can be identified with a high degree of certainty by imaging; surgery is technically difficult due to adherence to adjacent vascular and cerebral structures and hypervascularity; location near functional brain tissue increases the risk of postoperative sequelae. In addition, mechanisms of epilepsy probably involve vascular and cortical dysplasic abnormalities. In consideration of the complexity of the lesion, hemispheric lipomas are more appropriately classified with localized cortical malformations rather than as simple extracerebral malformations. ( info)

4/20. Asymmetry of cortical excitability revealed by transcranial stimulation in a patient with focal motor epilepsy and cortical myoclonus.

    motor cortex excitability was analyzed with transcranial stimulation in a patient with motor focal epilepsy and cortical myoclonus originating from the right motor cortex. The motor threshold to single transcranial magnetic shocks, but not to electric stimuli, was higher in the epileptic motor cortex than the normal left motor cortex. Single magnetic shocks elicited a short cortical silent period (50 ms) in the epileptic motor cortex. Paired magnetic stimuli also showed reduced cortico-cortical inhibition. These findings reveal an asymmetry in cortical excitability presumably due to impaired inhibition in the epileptic motor cortex. ( info)

5/20. Idiopathic generalized epilepsy presenting with hemiconvulsive seizures.

    PURPOSE: Unilateral seizures, or hemiconvulsive attacks, are motor seizures with tonic and/or clonic phenomena that involve only one side of the body. methods: We describe three adolescents who presented with hemiconvulsive seizures and were found to have 3-cps generalized spike-and-wave discharges on ictal and/or interictal EEG. All had normal neuroimaging studies. Two patients had been previously treated with carbamazepine, which led to a partial response in one patient. RESULTS: All three patients, however, are now seizure free on either sodium valproate or a combination of sodium valproate and lamotrigine. We believe the electroclinical diagnosis is that of idiopathic generalized epilepsy. CONCLUSIONS: Idiopathic generalized epilepsy presenting with hemiconvulsive seizures has not, to our knowledge, been previously described. However, the correct diagnosis of an idiopathic generalized seizure disorder, as opposed to a partial seizure disorder, has important treatment implications. The possible mechanism of hemiconvulsive seizures in idiopathic generalized epilepsy is discussed. ( info)

6/20. Ictal brain hemodynamics in the epileptic focus caused by a brain tumor using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we were able to observe, in detail, ictal brain hemodynamics during epileptic seizure caused by a brain tumor. A 53-year-old man was experencing partial motor seizures of the left side of his face and neck. In a brain MR image a mass lesion was found in the subcortical area of the right frontal lobe. We found focal spikes in his right hemisphere, though dominantly in C4 and T4 regions. fMRI investigations were carried out at 1.5 T (GE Signa Horizon) using gradient-echo echo-planar neuroimaging. We were able to perform the ictal examination twice. The activated regions were focalized and clearly found only on the lateral side of the tumor base. The region was in agreement with the epileptic focus examined using an electrocorticogram (ECOG). The signal intensity in the seizure focus rapidly increased 30 seconds before the convulsion was observed. After the end of the convulsion it also took 30 seconds to restore the signal intensity to the baseline value. fMRI is a very useful tool for various studies such as the identification of the epileptic focus, the mechanism of epileptic seizure, and so on. ( info)

7/20. Intermittent falls and fecal incontinence as a manifestation of epileptic negative myoclonus in idiopathic partial epilepsy of childhood.

    We report two children, suffering from idiopathic partial epilepsy, who started to present, in the same period of time, with epileptic negative myoclonus (ENM) in one lower limb and fecal incontinence (FI). Polygraphic recordings showed that ENM was associated with paroxysmal activities distributed over the vertex region. Both ENM and FI disappeared when ethosuximide treatment was started. We hypothesize that, in our patients, ENM in one lower limb and FI depended on a transitory impairment, caused by epileptic activity that altered the functionality of nearby cortical areas, located in fronto-mesial regions, involved in the control of the muscular tone of the lower limbs and of the pelvic floor muscles. ( info)

8/20. Periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges in influenza B-associated encephalopathy.

    An 18-year-old woman presented with coma, hemicomvulsions, and transient periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges (PLEDs). Serological tests were positive for influenza B, and cerebrospinal fluid PCR for herpes simplex virus dna was negative. magnetic resonance imaging later showed abnormal signal intensity in the temporal lobe ipsilateral to the PLEDs. Influenza-associated encephalopathy may cause hemiconvulsions and PLEDs, and can mimic herpes simplex encephalitis. ( info)

9/20. Electroencephalographic dipoles of spikes with and without myoclonic jerks caused by epilepsia partialis continua.

    We used electroencephalographic (EEG) dipole analysis to investigate the generators of spikes with and without myoclonic jerks in a 12-year-old patient with epilepsia partialis continua secondary to left parietal cortical dysplasia. We recorded EEG and right wrist extensor electromyography (EMG) and collected 42 spikes with jerks (jerking spikes) and 42 spikes without jerks (nonjerking spikes). We applied a single moving dipole model to the individual and averaged spikes. Dipoles at the negative peak of individual jerking and nonjerking spikes were localized in the dysplastic area. At the onset of the averaged jerking spike that preceded the EMG discharges by 20 ms, the dipole was in the motor cortex, whereas for the averaged nonjerking spike, the dipole was in the sensory cortex. The dipole moment at averaged jerking spike onset was twice that of the averaged nonjerking spike. Electroencephalographic dipole analysis of averaged spikes differentiated the generator of jerking and nonjerking spikes in epilepsia partialis continua. Individual dipoles demonstrated the area of epileptogenic cortical dysplasia. ( info)

10/20. Metabolic consequences of a novel missense mutation of the mtDNA CO I gene.

    We have identified a novel heteroplasmic C6489A missense mutation in the mitochondrial dna (mtDNA) CO I gene encoding the cytochrome c oxidase (COX) subunit I in a 17-year-old girl with epilepsia partialis continua. This point mutation leads to an exchange of the highly conserved Leu196 to Ileu196. Muscle biopsy showed in single fibers decreased COX activity and lowered binding of COX antibodies, indicating decreased stability of the mutated enzyme. The analysis of blood mtDNA revealed about 30% mutant mtDNA in the patients blood but about 90% mutant mtDNA in the blood of two non-affected family members. Quantitative analysis of the mutation gene dose effect on COX activity on single muscle fiber level revealed a very high threshold-a COX deficiency was observed only in fibers containing >95% mutant mtDNA. In apparent contrast to this high mutation gene dose threshold, in vivo investigations of mitochondrial function in saponin-permeabilized muscle fibers of the index patient containing approximately 90% mutated mtDNA showed decreased maximal rates of respiration and an increased sensitivity of fiber respiration to cyanide. This is due to a 2-fold increase of COX flux control on muscle fiber respiration and a 30% decrease of COX metabolic threshold, supporting the concept of tight COX control of oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle. ( info)
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