Cases reported "Epilepsy, Post-Traumatic"

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1/8. Episodic coma in a new leukodystrophy.

    Among the leukodystrophies of a hypomyelinating nature, childhood ataxia with diffuse central nervous system hypomyelination exhibits the unique feature of rapid decrease in mental status after relatively minor head injuries or otherwise noncomplicated febrile illnesses. This article reports the case of a child with progressive spastic quadriparesis in whom unconsciousness developed repeatedly as a result of minor head trauma and required prolonged critical-care nursing. Although cognition is believed to be relatively preserved in this disorder, this child developed progressive cognitive decline. A detailed review of the literature is presented along with discussion of the potential mechanisms of neurologic deterioration.
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ranking = 1
keywords = status
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2/8. valproic acid-induced hyperammonemia: a case report.

    The authors present a case of a patient treated with valproic acid for seizure disorder who presented with acute mental status changes consistent with encephalopathy. Notably, her serum ammonia level was 3 times the upper limit of normal, despite an only mildly elevated aspartate aminotransferase and normal bilirubin. Her serum valproic acid level was in the therapeutic range. Her symptoms resolved with discontinuation of valproic acid and supportive care. The authors review the possible mechanisms of valproic acid-associated hyperammonemia with encephalopathy and propose clinical practice modifications to minimize the incidence of this adverse reaction to this generally well-tolerated and clinically important psychotropic medication.
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ranking = 1
keywords = status
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3/8. Severe, self-limiting lactic acidosis and rhabdomyolysis accompanying convulsions.

    A 26 year old man with no previous history of convulsions presented in status epilepticus and severe lactic acidosis. He regained consciousness and the acidosis resolved after several hours of conservative management without intravenous bicarbonate, but he developed severe myalgia associated with marked elevation of creatine kinase and moderate raised plasma creatinine levels which resolved spontaneously after 3 days. Severe lactic acidosis and rhabdomyolysis may accompany status epilepticus, although they appear to be self-limiting without important sequelae.
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ranking = 286.40643977867
keywords = status epilepticus, epilepticus, status
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4/8. Restless legs with antiepileptic drug therapy.

    The restless legs syndrome is generally benign but is occasionally associated with anemia, metabolic disorder, or polyneuropathy. Leg restlessness with disruptive nocturnal myoclonus has been described as a sleep disorder. We report two patients with complex partial and secondarily generalized seizures, who developed restless legs while taking methsuximide and phenytoin. They had no evidence of metabolic disturbance or neuromuscular disease, although one patient had fragmented sleep and disruptive myoclonus on polysomnography, and leg restlessness subsided with change of antiepileptic drugs. These symptoms could reflect transient alteration in peripheral nerve function not evident by examination or electrophysiologic studies, sleep disturbance by antiepileptic drugs or the effects of temporal lobe seizure foci on perception of the physiologic state of nerves and muscles.
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ranking = 0.0063700558265611
keywords = complex
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5/8. Complex partial status epilepticus of frontal lobe origin.

    Nonconvulsive status epilepticus may be subdivided into generalized (absence) status and complex partial status. The latter is generally considered as a rare condition, whereas the former is fairly common to have been reported in many articles. We have reported here a case of complex partial status epilepticus in which the seizure origin was thought to be located in the frontal but not temporal lobe. After looking over the relevant literatures we commented that the incidence of complex partial status of extratemporal origin does not seem to be as rare as it has been believed to be. The main reason for this is the frequency with which it is misdiagnosed. The diagnostic errors are due to a failure to recognize the epileptic cause of the attacks or to appreciate localizing the clinical seizure characteristics and misleading scalp EEG findings. By making a closer observation of clinical manifestations, the likelihood that a correct diagnosis can be made will be increased.
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ranking = 4490.6731799528
keywords = complex partial status, partial status, status epilepticus, epilepticus, status, complex
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6/8. The role of stereotactic amygdalotomy in the treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy associated with behavioral disorders.

    The efficacy of bilateral stereotactic amygdalotomy for the treatment of aggressive behavioral disorders has been evaluated in a retrospective study of 67 cases. In addition 4 cases with complex partial seizures accompanied by aggressive outbursts revealing a unilateral epileptogenic focus in the amygdala or periamygdala region during preoperative stereoelectroencephalographic (SEEG) evaluation received a unilateral stereotactic amygdalotomy. Long-term follow-up of these 4 cases shows that 3 patients had considerable improvement in seizure frequency and severity as well as behavioral disturbances. The results in the remaining patients evaluated by surface EEG were inconclusive.
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ranking = 0.0063700558265611
keywords = complex
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7/8. Clinical management of a man with complex partial seizures and a severe head injury.

    A case history of a man with complex partial seizures resulting from a severe head injury following a road traffic accident is presented. Details of medical intervention and neuropsychological assessment are also presented and discussed, highlighting the difficulties of balancing therapeutic doses of anticonvulsant medication with cognitive functioning adequate to maintain expected quality of life. An interesting finding revealed that the patient's blood-sodium levels increased rather than decreased with rising doses of anticonvulsant medication.
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ranking = 0.031850279132806
keywords = complex
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8/8. Use of a comprehensive programme of external cueing to enhance procedural memory in a patient with dense amnesia.

    This case study describes rehabilitation efforts with a 24-year-old woman who exhibited dense amnesia secondary to status epilepticus following a motor vehicle accident. She was 20 months post-injury upon entry into our day treatment programme. The functional severity of her amnesia was reflected in numerous ways, including no recall of what she wore from day to day and an inability to find the toilet after 2 weeks in the programme. A multidisciplinary comprehensive programme of external cueing was established to exploit her preserved procedural memory. Objective measures of functional compliance were gathered over time and contrasted with both standard neuropsychological test scores and early levels of functioning in rehabilitation. Results demonstrated enhanced functioning via utilization of procedural memory. In addition, the patient actually demonstrated increased independent generalization of strategies and techniques over time. Practical treatment implications are reviewed and discussed.
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ranking = 143.20321988934
keywords = status epilepticus, epilepticus, status
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