Cases reported "Epilepsy, Rolandic"

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1/17. Idiopathic rolandic epilepsy with "interictal" facial myoclonia and oromotor deficit: a longitudinal EEG and PET study.

    PURPOSE: The prognosis of benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) is always favorable as far as the epilepsy is concerned. However, some data suggest that affected children may be at risk for minor cognitive impairment. We report here the longitudinal study of a young girl demonstrating that BECTS also may be associated with severe motor disturbances. methods: BECTS (rare left oromotor seizures, right rolandic spike-waves activated during sleep) started at the age of 3 years 6 months in a girl with normal initial psychomotor development. Her clinical, neuropsychological, and EEG status was assessed every 3-6 months. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism was measured by using the [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) method. RESULTS: Between the age of 5 and 6 years, the girl had (a) increased seizure frequency; (b) brief perioral and palpebral myoclonic jerks, concomitant with the spike component of interictal spike-waves, and (c) persistent but fluctuating oromotor deficits (drooling, dysarthria, dysphagia). The EEG showed a marked increase in abundance and amplitude of wake and sleep interictal abnormalities, which became bilateral. Awake FDG-PET revealed a bilateral increase of glucose metabolism in opercular regions. A complete and definitive EEG and clinical remission occurred at age 5 years 11 months and has persisted since (present age, 7 years 9 months). CONCLUSIONS: This case confirms that during BECTS, epileptiform dysfunctions within rolandic areas may induce "interictal" positive or negative oromotor symptoms, independent of classic seizures.
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2/17. Paradoxic reaction to lamotrigine in a child with benign focal epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes.

    A girl aged 5 years developed nocturnal seizures (mouth twitching, salivation, anarthria, with right arm jerking and occasional secondary generalisation), with frequent focal sharp waves over the left centrotemporal region in her EEG, suggesting benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS). seizures became diurnal and frequent, not modified by carbamazepine (CBZ) or valproate (VPA) but responding to VPA and lamotrigine (LTG) with recommended dosage schedules for this combination. Her school performance then deteriorated insidiously, with poor memory and concentration, clumsiness, stuttering, and emotional lability. After 4 months, new episodes, < or =10 per day, occurred. These lasted a few seconds; she stared into space, her jaw dropped, her head dropped to the right, and her eyelids flickered. She usually maintained awareness. Attacks were often provoked by blowing or sneezing. Ictal EEG showed anterior-predominant 3/s sharp-slow wave complexes lasting < or =8 s, with bilateral rolandic discharges interictally. Withdrawal of LTG resulted in rapid improvement in cognitive function and gradual remission of the new attacks. CONCLUSIONS: This appears to be a paradoxic reaction to LTG in the setting of BECTS.
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3/17. reading epilepsy in a patient with previous idiopathic focal epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes.

    RATIONALE: reading epilepsy (RE) is a form of reflex epilepsy currently classified as an idiopathic localization-related epilepsy (ILAE, 1989). methods: We describe a 30 year-old right-handed male who suffered since the age of 8 from nocturnal partial motor seizures. Clinical features were typical of BECT. We reviewed the EEG recorded at that time which showed centrotemporal spike and waves. He was seizure-free from the age of 12 to the age of 17 when seizures evoked only by reading appeared. No other stimuli provoked seizures. Neurological and neuroradiological (CT and MR) investigations were normal. Baseline video-polygraphic EEG recordings were normal while reading aloud provoked myoclonic jerks in the facial muscles related to bilateral spike and wave discharges. Therapy with carbamazepine and valproic acid strongly reduced seizure frequency. CONCLUSION: Recent papers have debated the difficulties in classifying RE among the generalized or focal syndromes. literature reports describe an association with RE and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, supporting the hypothesis of an idiopathic generalized form. We report the first documented case with a clear-cut idiopathic localization-related epilepsy evolving to a primary reading epilepsy.
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4/17. Cognitive and behavioral problems in children with centrotemporal spikes.

    Atypical features in benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) are not uncommon. There are children with BECTS who do not have a benign outcome in terms of neuropsychologic functioning. BECTS have been linked with landau-kleffner syndrome (LKS) and continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep (CSWS). At the Medical College of georgia from January 1988 to June 1999, 78 children, ages 2-16 years, were identified to have electroencephalogram evidence of centrotemporal spikes. Their medical records were reviewed for developmental history, behavioral problems, and school performance. Children with structural lesions/other epileptic syndromes were excluded. Fifty-six demonstrated a history of clinical seizures compatible with BECTS and 22 demonstrated centrotemporal spikes without clinical seizures. Among all children with centrotemporal spikes, 9% (n = 7) were diagnosed with mild intellectual disability (intelligence quotient < 70), 10% (n = 8) with borderline functioning, 31% (n = 24) with behavioral problems, and 17% (n = 13) with specific learning disabilities. Three children with BECTS experienced language delay and regression. Seizure control for BECTS usually is achieved without much difficulty, with excellent long-term prognosis. However, the data presented indicate that a large number of BECTS patients exhibit learning or behavior problems that require intervention. A small number may demonstrate language outcome similar to children with LKS and CSWS.
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5/17. Transient oromotor deficits in children with benign childhood epilepsy with central temporal spikes.

    PURPOSE: To describe transient oromotor deficits in benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BCECTS), an idiopathic age-specific epileptic syndrome with a benign course. methods: Five children with BCECTS and intermittent dysarthria and drooling not in the context of typical clinical seizures are presented. RESULTS: The periods of oromotor deficits correlated with increased seizure frequency in all children. Concomitant EEGs that were recorded during periods of dysarthria in four of the children revealed focal electrographic seizures. The reported children did not differ from other patients with BCECTS in any other respect. CONCLUSIONS: Transient oromotor dysfunction is a rare ictal phenomenon that occurs in children with BCECTS with no other unique clinical features.
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6/17. Seizure's outcome after cortical resections including the face and tongue rolandic areas in patients with refractory epilepsy and normal MRI submitted to subdural grids' implantation.

    PURPOSE: To study the seizure's outcome in patients with refractory epilepsy and normal MRI submitted to resections including the rolandic cortex. methods: Four adult patients were studied. All patients had motor or somatosensory simple partial seizures and normal MRI and were submitted to subdural grids' implantation with extensive coverage of the cortical convexity (1 in the non-dominant and 3 in the dominant hemisphere). RESULTS: ECoG was able to define focal areas of seizures' onset in every patient. All patients were submitted to resection of the face and tongue motor and sensitive cortex; two patients had resections including the perirolandic cortex and 2 had additional cortical removals. Three patients are seizures' free and one had a greater then 90% reduction in seizure frequency. CONCLUSION: Resections including the face and tongue rolandic cortex can be safely performed even within the dominant hemisphere.
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7/17. Semiology of typical and atypical Rolandic epilepsy: a video-EEG analysis.

    Since the first descriptions of Rolandic epilepsy or benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS), typical and atypical forms have been reported. Indeed, classical focal seizures are sometimes associated with various atypical ictal symptoms and cognitive or behavioural disorders. In an effort to define early clinical and EEG criteria allowing early distinction between typical and atypical forms, we recently conducted a prospective study in a cohort of children with Rolandic epilepsy. The results of this study have been reported elsewhere. We now discuss the semiological characteristics, and comment on the video-EEG data collected during this study. Symptoms were classified into three major categories: "classical focal seizures"; "spike and wave related symptoms"; and "paraictal symptoms". Classical focal seizures constitute the electroclinical expression of the development and the propagation of a focal cortical neuronal discharge. "Spike and wave related symptoms" are brief neurological or neuropsychological phenomena having a relatively strict temporal relation with individual components of isolated focal or generalized spikes and waves. "Paraictal symptoms" consist of acquired progressive and fluctuating motor or cognitive deficits and are not directly correlated with Todd paralysis. We present detailed video-EEG material of selected cases and discuss the usefulness of such distinctions in terminology. We suggest that variability in clinical expression probably reflects the implication of different pathophysiological mechanisms, which in turn could explain differences in sensitivity to treatment. (Published with videosequences.)
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8/17. phenobarbital-induced atypical absence seizure in benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes.

    This report describes atypical absence seizures induced by phenobarbital (PB) in a patient with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes. An 11-year-old girl had nocturnal motor seizures, beginning at the age of 7 years. Interictal EEG displayed centrotemporal sharp waves in the left and right sides alternatively, which increased significantly in frequency during sleep. She was given a diagnosis of benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spike and was treated with valproic acid (VPA), which controlled her seizures for 3 years. She experienced nocturnal Rolandic seizures again, at the age of 10 years 2 months, 10 years 10 months in spite of the regular medication, and PB 60 mg daily was added to the VPA. Her parents noted de novo a few seconds of unresponsive fits 7 days after PB administration. Ictal EEG of the fits revealed diffuse irregular spike and wave bursts (1-4 seconds). VPA and PB in her blood was within the therapeutic ranges. After discontinuing PB, the atypical absence seizures immediately disappeared. phenobarbital should be added to the list of drugs that potentially provoke de novo seizures.
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9/17. Ictal electroencephalography in a case of benign centrotemporal epilepsy.

    The purpose of this research was to publish a complete ictal electroencephalographic (EEG) record of a child with benign centrotemporal epilepsy. The record includes a brief description of the patient's epilepsy syndrome, analysis of interictal and ictal EEG records, and a description of corresponding clinical ictal events. Ictal EEG activity appeared over the right rolandic cortex and spread to adjacent sites. Initial rhythmic activity was followed by bilateral series of sharply contoured slow waves. The electric field of the seizure discharge changed during the seizure. Tangentially oriented dipolar field was found in the middle part of the seizure. Evolution of clinical seizure phenomena roughly corresponded to propagation of the ictal discharge. In terms of topography and electromorphology, this ictal record was similar but not completely identical with those reported previously. Collection of further ictal records in benign rolandic or centrotemporal epilepsy of childhood and other epilepsy syndromes is necessary.
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10/17. epilepsy with reversible bulbar dysfunction.

    In patients with focal epilepsy, focal neurological dysfunction can occur due to status epilepticus and also as a post-ictal phenomenon. Bulbar dysfunction as evident by drooling, dysarthria, swallowing difficulties, and palatal-glossalpharyngeal weakness has been reported in conjunction with epilepsy. This is non-progressive and is correlated in its severity with the frequency of seizures. Accompanying EEG discharges are often localized to rolandic areas that cortically represent oral movements and salivation. We report a 6-year-old male and a 6 1/2-year-old female with progressive bulbar dysfunction resulting from epilepsy. Ictal EEGs in patient 1 did not confirm a diagnosis of epilepsy. With no evidence of a cortical or brainstem focus from EEG or MRI, it is very difficult to explain the mechanism of bulbar dysfunction. The complete restoration of bulbar function after treatment with antiepileptic drugs demonstrates the need to consider epilepsy in similar clinical situations.
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