Cases reported "Epilepsy, Rolandic"

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1/48. Redundancy gains for visual search after complete commissurotomy.

    Redundant-targets effects (RTE) for visual search were investigated in 2 commissurotomy patients (L.B., N.G.). L.B., who showed no evidence of visual interhemispheric transfer, exhibited a paradoxical enhancement of the redundancy gain in the bilateral compared with the within-hemifield redundant-targets conditions, whereas N.G., who showed evidence of interhemispheric transfer of visual information, exhibited no enhancement of the bilateral redundancy gain. When only uncrossed responses were considered, both bilateral and within-field RTE were evident only when attentional demands were high. Bilateral redundant targets led to stronger gains, some indicative of coactivation, in the slower response hand. The authors suggest that the enhancement of the bilateral RTE comes about by neural coactivation, which is especially pronounced when the slower hemisphere elicits the response. ( info)

2/48. Idiopathic rolandic epilepsy with "interictal" facial myoclonia and oromotor deficit: a longitudinal EEG and PET study.

    PURPOSE: The prognosis of benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) is always favorable as far as the epilepsy is concerned. However, some data suggest that affected children may be at risk for minor cognitive impairment. We report here the longitudinal study of a young girl demonstrating that BECTS also may be associated with severe motor disturbances. methods: BECTS (rare left oromotor seizures, right rolandic spike-waves activated during sleep) started at the age of 3 years 6 months in a girl with normal initial psychomotor development. Her clinical, neuropsychological, and EEG status was assessed every 3-6 months. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism was measured by using the [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) method. RESULTS: Between the age of 5 and 6 years, the girl had (a) increased seizure frequency; (b) brief perioral and palpebral myoclonic jerks, concomitant with the spike component of interictal spike-waves, and (c) persistent but fluctuating oromotor deficits (drooling, dysarthria, dysphagia). The EEG showed a marked increase in abundance and amplitude of wake and sleep interictal abnormalities, which became bilateral. Awake FDG-PET revealed a bilateral increase of glucose metabolism in opercular regions. A complete and definitive EEG and clinical remission occurred at age 5 years 11 months and has persisted since (present age, 7 years 9 months). CONCLUSIONS: This case confirms that during BECTS, epileptiform dysfunctions within rolandic areas may induce "interictal" positive or negative oromotor symptoms, independent of classic seizures. ( info)

3/48. Autistic regression with rolandic spikes.

    OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to further define the electroencephalographic abnormalities seen in the landau-kleffner syndrome variants and the associated clinical features. BACKGROUND: landau-kleffner syndrome is rare, but its putative variants are more common. METHOD: We report two patients with centro-temporal spikes, autistic epileptiform regression, and variably prominent oro-motor symptoms. RESULTS: The epileptic aphasia pattern found among patients with prominent Rolandic spikes may more frequently involve expressive language than is seen in the typical landau-kleffner syndrome, where verbal auditory agnosia is the rule. CONCLUSIONS: This clinical difference likely reflects the location of the epileptiform activity (centrotemporal as opposed to anterior or mid-temporal) on buccal-lingual function, vocalization, and language production. ( info)

4/48. Paradoxic reaction to lamotrigine in a child with benign focal epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes.

    A girl aged 5 years developed nocturnal seizures (mouth twitching, salivation, anarthria, with right arm jerking and occasional secondary generalisation), with frequent focal sharp waves over the left centrotemporal region in her EEG, suggesting benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS). seizures became diurnal and frequent, not modified by carbamazepine (CBZ) or valproate (VPA) but responding to VPA and lamotrigine (LTG) with recommended dosage schedules for this combination. Her school performance then deteriorated insidiously, with poor memory and concentration, clumsiness, stuttering, and emotional lability. After 4 months, new episodes, < or =10 per day, occurred. These lasted a few seconds; she stared into space, her jaw dropped, her head dropped to the right, and her eyelids flickered. She usually maintained awareness. Attacks were often provoked by blowing or sneezing. Ictal EEG showed anterior-predominant 3/s sharp-slow wave complexes lasting < or =8 s, with bilateral rolandic discharges interictally. Withdrawal of LTG resulted in rapid improvement in cognitive function and gradual remission of the new attacks. CONCLUSIONS: This appears to be a paradoxic reaction to LTG in the setting of BECTS. ( info)

5/48. Systematic approach to dipole localization of interictal EEG spikes in children with extratemporal lobe epilepsies.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the reliability of dipole localization based on residual variances (RV), using equivalent current dipole analysis of interictal EEG spikes in children with extratemporal lobe epilepsy. methods: Four pediatric patients with extratemporal lobe epilepsy were studied. Digital EEG was recorded from 19 scalp electrodes. Computer programs for spike detection and clustering analysis were used to select spikes. Dipoles were calculated 5 times for each spike using different initial guesses by the moving dipole model. Standard deviation (SD) of the dipole positions was calculated at each time point in the 5 trials. RESULTS: We analyzed the dipoles at 1097 time points from 4 patients. Among 106 time points with RV < 2%, the SD was < 1 mm in 78 (74%), while in those with SD > 1 mm the dipole positions varied between 2.8 and 52.6 mm. Of dipoles with RV < 1%, 26 of 27 (96%) had an SD < 1 mm; the one dipole with SD > 1 mm varied within 2.5 mm. The dipole localizations with RV < 2% corresponded to the epileptogenic zones identified on intracranial invasive video EEG and intraoperative ECoG. CONCLUSIONS: The systematic approach of equivalent current dipole analysis using spike detection, clustering analysis, and an RV < 2% as a standard is useful for identifying extratemporal epileptic regions. ( info)

6/48. Benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes: is it always benign?

    Most children with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes have few seizures, and some have only one. We describe two children with interictal and ictal findings consistent with this epileptic syndrome but with severe intractable seizures and cognitive decline that resulted in consideration for epilepsy surgery. Spontaneous remission occured in one child; the other is still young. Despite the high seizure burden and cognitive decline, surgical consideration should be withheld, as these seizures are likely to remit. ( info)

7/48. Idiopathic partial epilepsy: electroclinical demonstration of a prolonged seizure with sequential rolandic and occipital involvement. Seizure spread due to regional susceptibility?

    Benign rolandic epilepsy (BRE) and childhood epilepsy with occipital paroxysms (CEOP) are overlapping in age range of presentation. Some children have been reported to manifest occipital and rolandic seizures, as distinct events. However, the presence during the same seizure of rolandic and occipital symptoms is exceptional. We present a 7-year-old boy with BRE in whom we video-EEG recorded two seizures at 4 years of age. The first episode was a classic rolandic seizure during sleep, while the second was prolonged with initial rolandic and late occipital involvement. It is possible that a rolandic seizure, in a child within the age range of both BRE and early onset CEOP, could spread to selectively involve the occipital lobe, because there is susceptibility of cortical neurons of both areas to develop seizures at this age in idiopathic partial epilepsies. ( info)

8/48. epilepsy and perisylvian lipoma/cortical dysplasia complex.

    Intracranial lipomas are congenital malformations composed of mature adipocytes. They are usually located in the midline, particularly in the pericallosal region, a hemispheric location accounting for only 3 to 7% of cases. review of the literature found 21 previous cases of hemispheric lipoma. Although hemispheric cerebral lipomas are rare, association with epilepsy appears to be frequent. We have recently studied two patients in whom epilepsy was the first clinical manifestation of hemispheric cerebral lipoma in the sylvian region. The patients presented with simple motor partial seizures as the first manifestation of the lesion. Neurological examination was normal. MRI disclosed in both cases a lesion involving the sylvian fissure with characteristics of the lipid signal. MRI also demonstrated abnormalities involving the cerebral cortex in the vicinity of the lesion (pachygyria-like aspect). Partial excision of the lesion was achieved in one patient but was followed by a worsening of seizures and neurological condition (hemiparesis). According to the literature, the prognosis for epilepsy in patients with hemispheric lipoma appears good. Several other arguments support non-surgical management: the lesion is benign and can be identified with a high degree of certainty by imaging; surgery is technically difficult due to adherence to adjacent vascular and cerebral structures and hypervascularity; location near functional brain tissue increases the risk of postoperative sequelae. In addition, mechanisms of epilepsy probably involve vascular and cortical dysplasic abnormalities. In consideration of the complexity of the lesion, hemispheric lipomas are more appropriately classified with localized cortical malformations rather than as simple extracerebral malformations. ( info)

9/48. reading epilepsy in a patient with previous idiopathic focal epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes.

    RATIONALE: reading epilepsy (RE) is a form of reflex epilepsy currently classified as an idiopathic localization-related epilepsy (ILAE, 1989). methods: We describe a 30 year-old right-handed male who suffered since the age of 8 from nocturnal partial motor seizures. Clinical features were typical of BECT. We reviewed the EEG recorded at that time which showed centrotemporal spike and waves. He was seizure-free from the age of 12 to the age of 17 when seizures evoked only by reading appeared. No other stimuli provoked seizures. Neurological and neuroradiological (CT and MR) investigations were normal. Baseline video-polygraphic EEG recordings were normal while reading aloud provoked myoclonic jerks in the facial muscles related to bilateral spike and wave discharges. Therapy with carbamazepine and valproic acid strongly reduced seizure frequency. CONCLUSION: Recent papers have debated the difficulties in classifying RE among the generalized or focal syndromes. literature reports describe an association with RE and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, supporting the hypothesis of an idiopathic generalized form. We report the first documented case with a clear-cut idiopathic localization-related epilepsy evolving to a primary reading epilepsy. ( info)

10/48. Can protrusion of the tongue stop seizures in Rolandic epilepsy?

    We report the case of a child with benign partial epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes (BECT) in whom protrusion of the tongue stopped the interictal abnormalities, and describe the polygraphic EEG recording of a seizure which terminated upon voluntary protrusion of the tongue. We mention the close link between the post-central (somatosensory) cortex and pre-central (motor) cortex, and how the primary sensory area has direct access to the motor cortex. We also examine how a tactile stimulus may provoke the inhibition of an epileptic discharge. ( info)
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