Cases reported "Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe"

Filter by keywords:



Filtering documents. Please wait...

1/95. An angiographically occult arteriovenous malformation in the medial parietal lobe presenting as seizures of medial temporal lobe origin.

    We present an unusual case of a patient who was diagnosed with temporal lobe epilepsy and whose seizures were reduced markedly after excision of an angiographically occult arteriovenous malformation (AVM) located in the left medial parietal lobe. A 38-year-old man had complex partial seizures characterized by motionless staring with oroalimentary and behavioral automatisms since the age of 15 years. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a small lesion extending from the left posterior cingulate gyrus to the precuneus. There was no MRI evidence of mesial temporal sclerosis. Intracranial EEG recordings showed ictal onset from the left medial parietal lobe propagating to the medial temporal lobes. Clinical signs appeared when these discharges reached the temporal lobes. After excision of the lesion (which was histologically confirmed as an AVM), together with the marginal cortex, seizures were reduced significantly. Careful diagnostic evaluation of lesions such as the this one may reveal an epileptogenic lesion (zone) far from the region where scalp ictal discharges seem to arise. In our case, we hypothesize that false localization was due to propagation of ictal discharges from the parietal focus through the limbic system.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = cortex
(Clic here for more details about this article)

2/95. Early and delayed MR and PET changes after selective temporomesial radiosurgery in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    We report a patient with medically refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy treated by gamma knife radiosurgery. In lieu of a microsurgical procedure, an entorhinoamygdalohippocampectomy was performed with a gamma knife and low marginal doses (25 Gy). The clinical and imaging studies, including CT, MR imaging, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), and long-term follow-up MR examinations, are reported. The patient has been seizure-free since the day of treatment, with no clinical complications. MR studies accurately depicted the effect on the target structures and the transient secondary changes around them. FDG-PET scans showed decreased metabolism after gamma knife surgery throughout the anteromesial part of the epileptogenic temporal lobe. This metabolic decrease was reversible in the lateral temporal cortex. Our case suggests that gamma knife surgery is a promising tool for use as a minimally invasive approach to the treatment of epilepsy.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = cortex
(Clic here for more details about this article)

3/95. 18F-FDG PET studies in patients with extratemporal and temporal epilepsy: evaluation of an observer-independent analysis.

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an observer-independent analysis of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET studies in patients with temporal or extratemporal epilepsy. methods: Twenty-seven patients with temporal epilepsy and 22 patients with extratemporal epilepsy were included in the study. All patients with temporal epilepsy and 7 patients with extratemporal epilepsy underwent surgical treatment. In patients who showed significant postoperative improvement (temporal, n = 23; extratemporal, n = 6), the epileptogenic focus was assumed to be located in the area of surgical resection. In extratemporal epilepsy patients who did not undergo surgery, the focus localization was determined using a combination of semiology, ictal and interictal electroencephalography, [99mTc]ethyl cysteinate dimer SPECT, MRI and [11C]flumazenil PET. Visual analysis was performed by two experienced and two less experienced blinded observers using sagittal, axial and coronal images. In the automated analysis after anatomic standardization and generation of three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections (SSPs), a pixelwise comparison of 18F-FDG uptake with an age-matched reference database (n = 20) was performed, resulting in z score images. Pixels with the maximum deviation were detected, summarized and attached to one of 20 predefined surface regions of interest. For comparison with 18F-FDG PET and MR images, three-dimensional overlay images were generated. RESULTS: In patients with temporal epilepsy, the sensitivity was comparable for visual and observer-independent analysis (three-dimensional SSP 86%, experienced observers 86%-90%, less experienced observers 77%-86%). In patients with extratemporal epilepsy, three-dimensional SSP showed a significantly higher sensitivity in detecting the epileptogenic focus (67%) than did visual analysis (experienced 33%-38%, each less experienced 19%). In temporal lobe epilepsy, there was moderate to good agreement between the localization found with three-dimensional SSP and the different observers. In patients with extratemporal epilepsy, there was a high interobserver variability and only a weak agreement between the localization found with three-dimensional SSP and the different observers. Although three-dimensional SSP detected multiple lesions more often than visual analysis, the determination of the highest deviation from the reference database allowed the identification of the epileptogenic focus with a higher accuracy than subjective criteria, especially in extratemporal epilepsy. CONCLUSION: Three-dimensional SSP increases sensitivity and reduces observer variability of the analysis of 18F-FDG PET images in patients with extratemporal epilepsy and is, therefore, a useful tool in the evaluation of this patient group. The benefit of this analytical approach in patients with temporal epilepsy is less apparent.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.07600673829322
keywords = visual
(Clic here for more details about this article)

4/95. language-related cognitive declines after left temporal lobectomy in children.

    Presented is a case series demonstrating that clinically significant language-related cognitive declines not detected by intelligence quotient (IQ) testing occur after left temporal lobectomy in school-aged children. In this series, comprehensive preoperative and postoperative neuropsychologic evaluations were completed in eight school-aged patients who underwent temporal lobectomy (five left, three right) for temporal lobe epilepsy. Mean age at surgery was 13 years, 11 months /- 2 years, 1 month. Testing included measurement of IQ, verbal learning, naming, visual memory, sight word recognition, reading comprehension, and calculation. All five left temporal lobectomy patients demonstrated significant language-related cognitive declines on postoperative neuropsychologic testing, including deficits in verbal IQ (one patient), verbal learning (four patients), naming (one patient), and reading comprehension (one patient). These deficits were clinically evident in four of the five left temporal lobectomy patients, leading to declines in educational performance. IQ testing alone did not reliably identify these deficits. No significant declines were found after surgery in three right temporal lobectomy patients. Average or high preoperative functioning may have predisposed patients to postoperative deficits in this series, whereas magnetic resonance imaging or pathologic abnormalities did not protect against postoperative deficits. Outcome studies of temporal lobectomy in childhood should use comprehensive neuropsychologic testing to identify cognitive deficits.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.025335579431073
keywords = visual
(Clic here for more details about this article)

5/95. Regional cerebral blood flow during temporal lobe seizures associated with ictal vomiting: an ictal SPECT study in two patients.

    PURPOSE: Ictal vomiting represents a rare clinical manifestation during seizures originating from the temporal lobes of the nondominant hemisphere. The precise anatomic structures responsible for generation of ictal vomiting remain to be clarified. Ictal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), which allows one to visualize the three-dimensional dynamic changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) associated with the ongoing epileptic activity, should be useful to study the brain areas activated during ictal vomiting. methods: We performed ictal Tc-HMPAO SPECT scans in two patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) whose seizures were characterized by ictal retching and vomiting. MTLE was documented by typical clinical seizure semiology, interictal and ictal EEG findings, hippocampal atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, and a seizure-free outcome after selective amydalohippocampectomy. In both patients, seizures originated in the nondominant temporal lobe. We obtained accurate anatomic reference of rCBF changes visible on SPECT by a special coregistration technique of MRI and SPECT. We used ictal SPECT studies in 10 patients with MTLE who had seizures without ictal vomiting as controls. RESULTS: In the two patients with ictal vomiting, we found a significant hyperperfusion of the nondominant temporal lobe (inferior, medial, and lateral superior) and of the occipital region on ictal SPECT. In patients without ictal vomiting, on the contrary, these brain regions never were hyperperfused simultaneously. CONCLUSIONS: Ictal SPECT provides further evidence that activation of a complex cortical network, including the medial and lateral superior aspects of the temporal lobe, and maybe the occipital lobes, is responsible for the generation of ictal vomiting.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.025335579431073
keywords = visual
(Clic here for more details about this article)

6/95. Partial seizures manifesting as apnea only in an adult.

    PURPOSE: Although several cases of apneic seizures have been reported in neonates, epileptic seizures presenting as apnea only in adults are very rare. We present a case report of a 19-year-old man with viral encephalitis and frequent episodes of apneic seizures. methods: Prolonged electroencephalograms (EEGs), respiratory monitorings, and imaging including ictal-interictal subtraction single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) coregistered with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed. RESULTS: Ictal EEGs recorded during apneic episodes showed repetitive sharp waves or rhythmic theta activity arising from the left or right independent bitemporal region. Ictal SPECT was performed during one episode of apnea that showed ictal EEG discharges arising from the left posterior temporal area. Ictal-interictal subtraction SPECT coregistered with MRI revealed that the seizures originated from the left, posterior, midlateral temporal cortex. CONCLUSIONS: Previous studies with ictal EEG or brain stimulation suggest that apneic seizures might be mediated through the limbic and associated cortical systems. Our study reports on a very rare case of partial seizures with apnea only in an adult patient and is supported by ictal EEG and ictal-interictal subtraction SPECT coregistered with MRI.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = cortex
(Clic here for more details about this article)

7/95. Tests of the predictive value of EEG recording from within the brain in the partial epilepsies.

    The EEG, as recorded from electrodes in deep structures of the brain in cases of intractable seizures, has been surveyed to assess its predictive value in the partial epilepsies. In addition to scalp EEGs and depth EEGs in control situations, ictal recordings of tape-recorded seizures and the interictal enhancement of EEG signs by benzodiazepines have been analyzed. All results have been quantified by computer analysis. The predictive value of the EEGs has been assessed in 2 ways: (1) by comparison with the pathology found after surgery and (2) by the long-term clinical status of the patient postoperatively. Twelve cases with lesions found in limbic structures and 6 with cortical involvement are reported. In the latter cases secondary firing of the hippocampus, with its low threshold for seizures, frequently followed, though more rapidly than could be timed by visual inspection alone. Bilateral signs both in scalp EEGs and in depth were a common finding in the cases with limbic lesions. In those patients with marked clinical improvement, follow-up computerized studies of pre- and post-operative scalp EEGs revealed normalization in both hemispheres, leading to the proposal that a focus of defective tissue may impair neuronal function in widely distant regions of the brain.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.025335579431073
keywords = visual
(Clic here for more details about this article)

8/95. temporal lobe focal cortical dysplasia: MRI imaging using FLAIR shows lesions consistent with neoplasia.

    Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD), a form of neuronal migration disorder, is a malformative lesion of the neocortex that occurs during development of the brain. It can cause partial and generalized epilepsy. seizures occur at an early age and are often resistant to medication. Surgical resection has been found to be beneficial in these patients. Dual pathology, in the form of mesial temporal sclerosis, has been associated with FCD. At the Children's Hospital of Eastern ontario, four patients with temporal lobe FCD have recently, been identified. This paper discusses how these children presented and how they were managed, with particular emphasis on their MRI findings and differential diagnoses. In three of the four patients neuroimaging studies showed lesions consistent with a neoplastic process because of the large volume and mass effect. Radiologically, FCD may mimic the MRI appearance of tumors, such as dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, gangliogliomas, oligodendrogliomas, and astrocytomas. These lesions are best visualized on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging, a technique that has recently become applicable in the clinical setting, as we help demonstrate in this series. With better MRI capability, milder forms of FCD and microdysplasia may be distinguished.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1.0253355794311
keywords = cortex, visual
(Clic here for more details about this article)

9/95. Focal cortical dysplasia of the temporal lobe with late-onset partial epilepsy: serial quantitative MRI.

    We describe serial studies of focal cortical dysplasia causing temporal lobe seizures and progressive aphasia in a 54-year-old woman. Initially, MRI volumetry of the temporal lobes showed significant left cortical thickening corresponding to an elevated amino-acid uptake in the left temporoparietal and inferior frontal cortex on SPECT using 3-[123I]iodo-alpha-methyl-L-tyrosine (IMT). After 1 year there was severe shrinkage of the left temporal lobe, possibly the result of recurrent complex partial seizures.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = cortex
(Clic here for more details about this article)

10/95. Surgical management of intractable epilepsy associated with cerebral neurocytoma.

    Neuronal neoplasms of the CNS constitute a rarely encountered group of tumors. This report concerns the surgical management of seizures encountered in four cases (ranging from 2 to 10 years-of-age at onset; consisting of two males and two females) of a recently recognized morphologically unique tumor, called 'cerebral neurocytoma'. All patients were associated solely with intractable complex partial seizures. The tumor involved the temporal lobe in two cases, and the frontal in two. magnetoencephalography (MEG) clearly demonstrated an accumulation of equivalent current dipoles originating from the interictal spikes on the cortex around the tumor. On intra-operative electrocorticography (ECoG), the epileptogenic zone was topographically distinct from the region of the tumor. No definite ECoG activities were observed at the tumor site, although this tumor did consist of small mature neuronal cells. Either a complete or a subtotal resection of the tumor and the epileptogenic cortex was performed and, post-operatively, universal freedom from seizures was demonstrated in all patients. A histological examination of the epileptogenic cortex revealed the presence of minute cortical dysplasia or tumor involvement in the hippocampus. A resection of the epileptogenic cortex along with the tumor was thus found to improve the seizure outcome in patients with neurocytoma-associated epilepsy without inducing any identifiable neurological deficits attributable to the incremental resection.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 4
keywords = cortex
(Clic here for more details about this article)
| Next ->


Leave a message about 'Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe'


We do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Click here for the full disclaimer.