Cases reported "Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe"

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1/82. Coexistence of temporal lobe and idiopathic generalized epilepsies.

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the interrelation of idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) when they coexist in the same patient. methods: The authors reviewed the electroclinical features of 350 consecutive patients who had temporal resection between 1975 and 1997 at the Maudsley and King's College hospitals, london. RESULTS: Two patients had the unusual combination of TLE and IGE (0.57%). In the first, the clinical onset of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy followed the surgical resolution of his partial seizures but had been heralded for at least 5 years by subclinical spontaneous and photically induced generalized spike-wave discharges. In the second, TLE and juvenile absence epilepsy had a long parallel course before surgery. After surgery he had no further partial seizures. CONCLUSION: These cases suggest that when an idiopathic absence or myoclonic syndrome manifests in a patient with symptomatic TLE, the phenotype may not be a merged syndrome. Rather, the two conditions can retain their inherent electroclinical profile, responsiveness to treatment, and prognosis.
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2/82. Partial seizures manifesting as apnea only in an adult.

    PURPOSE: Although several cases of apneic seizures have been reported in neonates, epileptic seizures presenting as apnea only in adults are very rare. We present a case report of a 19-year-old man with viral encephalitis and frequent episodes of apneic seizures. methods: Prolonged electroencephalograms (EEGs), respiratory monitorings, and imaging including ictal-interictal subtraction single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) coregistered with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed. RESULTS: Ictal EEGs recorded during apneic episodes showed repetitive sharp waves or rhythmic theta activity arising from the left or right independent bitemporal region. Ictal SPECT was performed during one episode of apnea that showed ictal EEG discharges arising from the left posterior temporal area. Ictal-interictal subtraction SPECT coregistered with MRI revealed that the seizures originated from the left, posterior, midlateral temporal cortex. CONCLUSIONS: Previous studies with ictal EEG or brain stimulation suggest that apneic seizures might be mediated through the limbic and associated cortical systems. Our study reports on a very rare case of partial seizures with apnea only in an adult patient and is supported by ictal EEG and ictal-interictal subtraction SPECT coregistered with MRI.
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3/82. Changes in paroxysmal brainwave patterns of epileptics by weak-field magnetic stimulation.

    In order to assess the effects of weak-field magnetic stimulation on brain electrical activity in epileptics, three patients suffering from mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) were exposed to DC magnetic fields of 0.9 and 1.8 millitesla (mT). The EEG activity was recorded simultaneously from intracranial electrodes inserted through the foramen ovale (FO) and scalp electrodes. Significant enhancement of interictal epileptiform activity was observed in two patients, while in one patient, magnetic stimulation resulted in the cessation of interictal spike/wave trains.
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4/82. Gamma knife radiosurgery for hypothalamic hamartomas in patients with medically intractable epilepsy and precocious puberty. Report of two cases.

    hamartoma of the hypothalamus represents a well-known but rare cause of central precocious puberty and gelastic epilepsy. Due to the delicate site in which the tumor is located, surgery is often unsuccessful and associated with considerable risks. In the two cases presented, gamma knife radiosurgery was applied as a safe and noninvasive alternative to obtain seizure control. Two patients, a 13-year-old boy and a 6-year-old girl, presented with medically intractable gelastic epilepsy and increasing episodes of secondary generalized seizures. Abnormal behavior and precocious puberty were also evident. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed hypothalamic hamartomas measuring 13 and 11 mm, respectively. After general anesthesia had been induced in the patients, radiosurgical treatment was performed with margin doses of 12 Gy to 90% and 60% of isodose areas, covering volumes of 700 and 500 mm3, respectively. After follow-up periods of 54 months in the boy and 36 months in the girl, progressive decrease in both seizure frequency and intensity was noted (Engel outcome scores IIa and IIIa, respectively). Both patients are currently able to attend public school. Follow-up MR imaging has not revealed significant changes in the sizes of the lesions. Gamma knife radiosurgery can be an effective and safe treatment modality for achieving good seizure control in patients with hypothalamic hamartomas.
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5/82. Seizure with prominent tonic initial signs followed by psychomotor features: a case report clinically manifesting an unusual ictal evolution.

    A clinically tonic seizure phase, immediately followed by psychomotor features (right hand dystonic posture, left hand and oral automatisms), was recorded by video and EEG, in a patient who had gliosis of the left temporal lobe and left hippocampal atrophy. Interictal epileptiform discharges were frequently seen in the left temporal area, and at the time of the tonic seizure phase, ictal spike discharges were continuously observed at the left posterior temporal area, which was recognized only by applying a high frequency filter (HFF) of 15 Hz to the digitally recorded EEG because EMG artifacts totally obscured the EEG with a HFF of 60 Hz. It is most likely that tonic seizure can occur in an adult patient with temporal lobe epilepsy, and it is speculated that an epileptogenic focus might activate a certain brain area which is regarded as a symptomatogenic zone for tonic seizures. If the tonic seizure phase is immediately followed by psychomotor features as seen in the present patient, the former could be due to focal epilepsy.
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6/82. Absence status (petit mal status) with focal characteristics.

    Two patients, aged 23 and 74 years, manifested prolonged episodes of mildly impaired consciousness in conjunction with rhythmical spike waves or spikes (mostly 3/s). This paroxysmal EEG activity was consistently accentuated unilaterally over the superior frontal regions. The first patient showed ictal aphasia and occasional right hemiparesis during these episodes, and partial left frontal lobectomy resulted in temporary freedom from seizures. The classification of these ictal episodes is difficult. They apparently fall into the category of absence status (petit mal status), but the focal neurological signs do not fit the presently valid definitions of absence status, nor does the lack of symmetrical bilateral-synchronous paroxysmal discharges. Perhaps a special category of status epilepticus should be established.
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7/82. A case of temporal lobe epilepsy with improvement of clinical symptoms and single photon emission computed tomography findings after treatment with clonazepam.

    A 26-year-old female presented psychomotor seizures, deja vu and amnestic syndrome after meningitis at the age of 14 years. Repeated electroencephalograms (EEG) demonstrated occasional spikes localized in the right temporal region in addition to a considerable amount of theta waves mainly in the right fronto-temporal region. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) showed a marked hypoperfusion corresponding to the region in which the EEG showed abnormal findings, although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated no abnormal findings associated with the clinical features. Treatment with clonazepam in addition to sodium valproate resulted in a remarkable improvement of clinical symptoms (i.e. psychomotor seizures and deja vu), as well as of the EEG and SPECT findings. The present study suggests that SPECT is a useful method not only to determine the localization of regions associated with temporal lobe epilepsy but also to evaluate the effect of treatment in temporal lobe epilepsy.
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8/82. Primary neonatal thalamic haemorrhage and epilepsy with continuous spike-wave during sleep: a longitudinal follow-up of a possible significant relation.

    epilepsy with continuous spike-waves during sleep was diagnosed in a child who suffered primary neonatal thalamic haemorrhage, and who was followed from birth to 17 years of age. Early cognitive development was normal. Acquired behavioural problems and cognitive stagnation could be directly related to the epilepsy and not to the initial lesion and posthaemorrhagic hydrocephalus. This case and long-term follow-up data on a few children who suffered primary neonatal thalamic haemorrhage suggest that epilepsy with continuous spike-waves during sleep can be a sequel. Disturbances of thalamocortical interactions could play a role in the still poorly understood syndrome of epilepsy with continuous spike-waves during sleep.
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9/82. Acute psychosis during intracranial EEG monitoring: close relationship between psychotic symptoms and discharges in amygdala.

    PURPOSE: This report examined the underlying mechanism of psychosis associated with epilepsy. methods: An adult patient with epilepsy manifesting acute psychosis during long-term EEG monitoring is presented, together with a literature review on this subject. RESULTS: A 25-year-old woman with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy developed acute psychosis while she underwent long-term intracranial EEG monitoring. After a clustering of seizures, she manifested psychotic symptoms including hallucination, stupor, and repeated fear. The transition of psychotic symptoms corresponded to the changes in frequency and morphology of seizure discharges restricted to the left amygdala. Improvement of psychosis coincided with disappearance of seizure discharges. CONCLUSIONS: This case confirmed a close relationship between psychotic symptoms and seizure discharges in the left amygdala. It is suggested that paroxysmal bombardment of the medial temporal lobe structure may be a pathogenetic factor of acute psychosis associated with epilepsy.
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10/82. The effect of vagus nerve stimulation on epileptiform activity recorded from hippocampal depth electrodes.

    PURPOSE: To assess the effect of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) on interictal epileptiform activity in the human hippocampus. Clinical studies have established the efficacy of vagus nerve stimulation in patients with epilepsy (VNS Study Group, 1995), although the electrophysiologic effects of VNS on the human hippocampus and mesial temporal lobe structures remain unknown. methods: We report a case study in which a patient with an implanted VNS underwent intracranial electrode recording before temporal lobectomy for intractable complex partial seizures. Epileptiform spikes and sharp waves were recorded from a depth electrode placed in the patient's left hippocampus. Spike frequencies and sharp-wave frequencies before and during VNS were compared using both a 5- and a 30-Hz stimulus. Different stimulation rates were tested on different days, and all analyses were performed using a Student's t test. RESULTS: We found no significant differences in spike frequency between baseline periods and stimulation at 5 and 30 Hz. In contrast, stimulation at 30 Hz produced a significant decrease in the occurrence of epileptiform sharp waves compared with the baseline, whereas stimulation at 5 Hz was associated with a significant increase in the occurrence of epileptiform sharp waves. CONCLUSIONS: VNS produces a measurable electrophysiologic effect on epileptiform activity in the human hippocampus. Although a clinical response to VNS did not occur in our patient before surgery, 30-Hz VNS suppressed interictal epileptiform sharp waves that were similar in appearance to those seen during the patient's actual seizures. In contrast, 5-Hz stimulation appeared to increase the appearance of interictal sharp waves.
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