Cases reported "Epilepsy, Tonic-Clonic"

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11/50. sleep grand mal--all-night polygraphic EEG recordings in 20 cases.

    All-night polygraphic EEG recordings were carried out in 20 epileptic patients who are characterized as follows; 1) clinical attacks took the form of generalized tonic-clonic seizure (GTCS), which occurred only or at least 90% during sleep without other seizure types in awakening, 2) no epileptic discharges were revealed in routine EEG examinations, also including sphenoidal electrode deriving during daytime, 3) recognizable organic brain damage in these patients had been excluded by neurological examinations and CT-scan. Interictal records showed epileptiform abnormalities in 5 of the 20 patients, which were all related with NREM sleep. Four patients exhibited bilateral synchronous paroxysms of 3-3.5 Hz spike-wave short burst and only one patient had temporal-localized discharges. The results of this study demonstrated that although there was a difference compared with other reports, the most characteristic features seen in our patients diagnosed as idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) were as follows: 1) less frequent SGM seizures within a year, 2) SZ onset around teen age, 3) seizures were easily evoked by some precipitating factors and 4) no recognizable organic lesions. As a conclusion, patients with an uncertain or unknown type of epilepsy should always be examined with sleep recordings and all-night sleep recordings if necessary.
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12/50. Video-EEG evidence of lateralized clinical features in primary generalized epilepsy with tonic-clonic seizures.

    BACKGROUND: Whether cortical or subcortical structures, specifically the thalamus, play the dominant role in generating primary generalized seizures has been the subject of long debate. Most experimental data implicate a hyperexcitable cortical generator of spike-and-wave activity, with the thalamus quickly recruited to sustain the generalized oscillations through a reverberating thalamocortical network. However, there is little clinical evidence to support the cortical generator hypothesis. We present video-EEG recordings of generalized tonic-clonic seizures in three patients with proven primary generalized epilepsy (PGE), all of whom showed a consistent pattern of lateralized seizure onset compatible with a focal frontal lobe generator. methods: Among 300 patients referred for video-EEG monitoring for intractable epilepsy, three were found to have PGE with tonic-clonic convulsions. All had a positive family history for epilepsy and no other epilepsy risk factors. epilepsy onset was during adolescence (2/3) or childhood (1/3). patients were taking 1-4 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) at admission, none of which was valproic acid. RESULTS : Interictal EEG showed very active, bilaterally synchronous generalized spike-and-wave or polyspike-and-wave discharges between 2.5-4.5 Hz, maximal over the midfrontal structures symmetrically in all patients. Ictal EEG showed generalized rhythmic activity without lateralization at seizure onset. Surprisingly, in all 6 recorded tonic-clonic seizures there was a sustained (10-15 seconds), stereotyped, clinical lateralization at onset, which took the form of a tonic "fencing posture" in one patient (two seizures) and forced head/eye/torso version in two patients (four seizures). Two patients became seizure-free shortly after switching to valproate monotherapy. One patient refused valproate but has improved more than 90% with a change in AEDs to lamotrigine and phenobarbital (follow-up in all patients>18 months). CONCLUSIONS: Tonic-clonic seizures are presumed to be generalized from onset in patients with PGE. However, video-EEG monitoring in these patients is rarely performed and the actual clinical features of the seizures maybe underappreciated. The demonstration of sustained lateralization at onset in our patients, with features clinically indistinguishable from focal onset frontal lobe seizures, is compatible with the hypothesis of a focal region of cortical hyperexcitability situated in the frontal lobes of some patients with PGE. Whether this cortical generator is autonomous or "triggered" by ascending, possibly normal, thalamocortical volleys is unresolved.
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13/50. Double-blind, randomized controlled pilot study of bilateral cerebellar stimulation for treatment of intractable motor seizures.

    PURPOSE: The efficacy and safety of cerebellar stimulation (CS) was reevaluated in a double-blind, randomized controlled pilot study on five patients with medically refractory motor seizures, and especially generalized tonic-clonic seizures. methods: Bilateral modified four-contact plate electrodes were placed on the cerebellar superomedial surface through two suboccipital burr holes. The implanted programmable, battery-operated stimulator was adjusted to 2.0 microC/cm(2)/phase with the stimulator case as the anode; at this level, no patient experienced the stimulation. patients served as their own controls, comparing their seizure frequency in preimplant basal phase (BL) of 3 months with the postimplant phases from 10 months to 4 years (average, eight epochs of 3 months each). During the month after implantation, the stimulators were not activated. The patient and the evaluator were blinded as to the next 3-month epoch, as to whether stimulation was used. The patients were randomized into two groups: three with the stimulator ON and two with the stimulator OFF. After a 4-month postimplantation period, all patients had their stimulator ON until the end of the study and beyond. Medication was maintained unchanged throughout the study. EEG paroxysmal discharges also were measured. RESULTS: Generalized tonic-clonic seizures: in the initial 3-month double-blind phase, two patients were monitored with the stimulation OFF; no change was found in the mean seizure rate (patient 1, 100%, and patient 5, 85%; mean, 93%), whereas the three patients with the stimulation initially ON had a reduction of seizures to 33% (patient 2, 21%; patient 3, 46%; patient 4, 32%) with a statistically significant difference between OFF and ON phase of p = 0.023. All five patients then were stimulated and monitored. At the end of the next 6 months of stimulation, the five patients had a mean seizure rate of 41% (14-75%) of the BL. The second patient developed an infection in the implanted system, which had to be removed after 11 months of stimulation; the seizures were being reduced with stimulation to a mean of one per month from a mean of 4.7 per month (BL level) before stimulation. At the end of 24 months, three patients were monitored with stimulation, resulting in a further reduction of seizures to 24% (11-38%). Tonic seizures: four patients had these seizures, which at 24 months were reduced to 43% (10-76%). Follow-up surgery was necessary in four patients because of infection in one patient and lead/electrode displacement needing repositioning in three patients. The statistical analysis showed a significant reduction in tonic-clonic seizures (p < 0.001) and tonic seizures (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The superomedial cerebellar cortex appears to be a significantly effective and safe target for electrical stimulation for decreasing motor seizures over the long term. The effect shows generalized tonic-clonic seizure reduction after 1-2 months and continues to decrease over the first 6 months and then maintains this effectiveness over the study period of 2 years and beyond.
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14/50. Agenesis of the corpus callosum and epilepsy in two brothers. Neurophysiological and MRI features.

    We report on two brothers with partial agenesis of the corpus callosum and seizure disorder presumably related to ectopic grey matter. Development of both patients was characterized by psychomotor retardation and focal epileptic seizures. Genetic examination revealed normal karyotypes. One brother showed a remarkable focal miniature spike and wave periodicity constantly observed on sequential EEG records. magnetic resonance imaging revealed partial agenesis of the corpus callosum and ectopic grey matter. Prior computerized tomography failed to visualize ectopic grey matter and overestimated corpus callosum agenesis. The heterotopic grey matter, isolated from the surrounding inhibiting influences, is the most probable source of focal seizures and the partial connection of both hemispheres may explain secondary generalization of seizures.
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15/50. Do generalized tonic-clonic seizures in infancy exist?

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) in infants (1 month to 2 years). methods: From a total of 2,112 patients monitored in our video-EEG lab from May 2000 through January 2005, 109 distinct seizures in 77 infants were reviewed. Eight events in eight patients were excluded because of video files insufficiently reliable to determine the clinical characteristics with precision. The clinical manifestations and electrographic features of the remaining 101 seizures in 69 infants were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: The authors did not observe a single GTCS. Four patients had icti that resembled GTCS, but careful analysis of these episodes revealed that three of them had a focal onset and that the fourth had a slightly different sequence of events. CONCLUSIONS: Generalized tonic-clonic seizures are rarely, if ever, seen in infants younger than age 2 in a tertiary-care pediatric epilepsy unit. Instead, they more commonly occur in older children, particularly in the well-characterized epilepsy syndromes of childhood and adolescence.
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16/50. Hyperphosphatasia with neurologic deficit: a pyridoxine-responsive seizure disorder?

    This report describes the case of a 4 1/2-year-old female with developmental delay and tonic-clonic seizures, persistently elevated serum alkaline phosphatase activity, and low serum pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Born at term to consanguineous parents, she was dysmorphic and delayed at 5 months. At 11 months, seizures and microcephaly were evident but skeletal and cerebral imaging, karyotyping, and genetic metabolic tests were unremarkable. serum alkaline phosphatase activity, however, was elevated (1.3 /- 0.6 times greater than the upper limit of normal) on seven occasions between 5 months and 4(1/2) years of age. Hyperphosphatasia with neurologic deficit (MIM #239300), a rare autosomal recessive disorder, was diagnosed. The low serum levels of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (6 nmol/L; normal >20 nmol/L) prompted a pyridoxine challenge. A clinically significant but paradoxical response was observed. On electroencephalography, diffuse delta slow waves (1-2 Hz) were observed, suggestive of stage 3 or 4 slow-wave sleep. With daily administration of 100 mg pyridoxine and withdrawal of phenobarbital, seizures were not evident. We suggest that serum alkaline phosphatase should be measured in cases of seizures with paradoxical electroencephalographic response to pyridoxine. Conversely, pyridoxine challenge should be considered in cases of hyperphosphatasia with seizures and neurologic deficit.
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17/50. NARP syndrome and adult-onset generalised seizures.

    The neurogenic muscle weakness, ataxia and retinitis pigmentosa (NARP) syndrome is a maternally inherited disorder attributable to a heteroplasmic mtDNA point mutation. Catastrophic epilepsy may accompany severe, early onset forms of NARP, but seizures seem to be rare in cases with adolescent and adult onset. We describe a patient who developed clumsiness and visual problems in her teens. She had no clinical seizures but an EEG showed generalized spike and wave discharges. At this time the patient remained without a specific diagnosis. At the age of 21, the patient developed progressive ataxia and she also experienced a tonic-clonic status epilepticus. Further examinations revealed NARP syndrome. EEG abnormalities may precede adult onset seizures in the NARP syndrome.
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18/50. Surgical treatment of intractable epilepsy associated with schizencephaly.

    With the advent of magnetic resonance imaging, there has been an increased recognition of schizencephaly during life, especially in epileptic patients. We report our experience with the assessment and treatment of three patients with medically intractable seizures associated with this condition. The three men were aged 24 to 37 years. Two had delayed developmental milestones and hemiparesis or hemiplegia. One had normal development and a normal neurological examination. seizures began between the ages of 15 and 19 years and lasted for 5 to 22 years before surgery. All had partial simple or generalized seizures with predominant electroencephalographic and electrocorticographic epileptic activity localized to temporal and frontal lobes on the side of the lesion. Neuropsychological assessment indicated widespread dysfunction maximal at the areas of predominant electroencephalographic abnormality. magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated anterior parasagittal, parietal, and Rolandic cerebral clefts, with ventricular diverticuli, gray matter heterotopia, polymicrogyria, and a true agenesis of the corpus callosum in individual patients. The patients underwent temporal (one patient) and frontotemporal (two patients) lobectomies without additional neurological deficits or neuropsychological deterioration. Postoperative follow-up showed reduction in seizure frequency. We conclude that the surgical treatment of epilepsy is well tolerated in such patients, and their seizures can be alleviated by resection of epileptogenic areas.
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19/50. Episodic twilight state with severe autonomic symptoms in an epileptic patient.

    A boy suffering from epileptic seizures experienced five episodes of a twilight state. His twilight states continued for at least two weeks, and were characterized by behavioral disorders and severe autonomic symptoms. Sometimes functional ileus was present. The electroencephalographic finding in the first episode was 6-per-second phantom spike and wave complex (PSW). For treatment, a combination of carbamazepine and sodium valproate was useful in preventing the reappearance of the episode of the twilight state and in suppressing PSW. From the clinical and electroencephalographic findings and therapeutic response to antiepileptics, the episodes were considered to have originated in localized epileptic discharges in the hippocampal, amygdaloidal and hypothalamic regions.
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20/50. Psychosis and seizures following the injection of penicillin g procaine. Hoigne's syndrome.

    Psychosis and/or seizures following the administration of intramuscular penicillin g procaine have not been reported in the pediatric literature to our knowledge. This omission is regrettable in light of the frequency with which this treatment is indicated as therapy for gonococcal infections. We report clinical data from four patients afflicted by this reaction known as Hoigne's syndrome. The dramatic and unexpected manifestation of this condition calls for an immediate diagnosis to proceed with the appropriate treatment.
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keywords = frequency
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