Cases reported "Epiphyses, Slipped"

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1/21. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis: is the displacement always posterior?

    The initial direction of displacement on slipped capital femoral epiphysis is generally accepted to be posterior as a consequence of retroversion of the femoral neck. We report the case of a 15-year-old boy with slipped capital femoral epiphysis in the medial direction, confirmed by three-dimensional computerized imaging. This was associated with an elongated neck without retroversion of the femoral neck. We suggest a correlation between elongated femoral neck with increased offset of the hip and the medial direction of slip. This case also underlines the need for precise definition of deformity prior to undertaking surgical treatment.
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2/21. Delayed separation of the capital femoral epiphysis after an ipsilateral transcervical fracture of the femoral neck.

    A displaced transcervical fracture of the femoral neck in a three-year-eight-month-old boy was fixed with two screws, which did not cross the growth plate. When he resumed walking five weeks after the injury, a delayed separation of the capital femoral epiphysis occurred. The displaced epiphysis was reduced and fixed with three unthreaded pins. In spite of disruption of the femoral neck at two sites, avascular necrosis of the femoral head did not occur. This was confirmed by two sequential isotope scans. Delayed epiphyseal separation after the femoral neck fracture and the preservation of the vascularity of the epiphysis in this case are both very unusual.
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3/21. coxa vara with proximal femoral growth arrest in patients who had neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    This is a retrospective review of four patients in whom a pattern of coxa vara with proximal femoral growth arrest and metaphyseal irregularities developed. These patients were all treated with neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and presented with a progressive gait disturbance and pain, leg-length discrepancy, and limited abduction. Imaging revealed coxa vara with proximal femoral growth arrest. Two patients (three hips) underwent proximal femoral valgus osteotomy, one patient underwent fixation of a femoral neck fracture with subsequent greater trochanter transfer, and one patient is being observed. This case series suggests an association between neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and this unusual pattern of coxa vara with proximal femoral growth arrest.
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4/21. Intertrochanteric osteotomy for the treatment of chronic slipped capital femoral epiphysis.

    Thirty six patients with a chronic slip of the capital femoral epiphysis and a femoral headneck angle of more than 30 degrees, as measured in a lateral radiograph, were treated by intertrochanteric osteotomy. The patients had an abnormal gait, an average age of 14.1 years and symptoms for an average of 14.5 months. The postoperative complications included two patients with avascular necrosis of the femoral head, four with coxa vara and two with loss of position requiring further operation. At an average of 7.5 years after operation 14 were good, 18 fair, and 4 poor on clinical assessment, with 13 good, 19 fair and 4 poor when judged by radiographs. patients with complications had only fair or poor results. A postoperative head-neck angle of less than 10 degrees indicated a good result.
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5/21. Nonunion of femoral neck fracture and trochanteric osteotomy after a pinned, slipped capital femoral epiphysis: a case report.

    Femoral neck fracture as a complication of slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is rare. Even rarer is a femoral neck nonunion as an additional complication. This is the first case reported in the literature of a failed valgus osteotomy for a femoral neck nonunion. A salvage operation involving a step-cut valgus/flexion/internal rotation osteotomy, open reduction and internal fixation, with a blade plate and cannulated screw, placement of an allograft femoral strut, and allograft bone grafting was successfully performed. femoral neck fractures following SCFE fixation are more difficult to treat because of abnormal femoral neck configuration. Therefore a valgus, flexion, and internal rotation producing osteotomy may need to be initially performed to prevent a femoral neck nonunion.
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6/21. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis in dogs.

    In a retrospective review of 43 femoral fractures, three dogs had separation of the femoral capital epiphysis from the metaphysis in the absence of trauma. Two of these dogs also had evidence of pathology in the contralateral femoral neck including, in one dog, displacement of the capital epiphysis in relation to the metaphysis without actual separation. The case histories, radiographic features and histopathological findings of these cases were reviewed and compared with previous cases of slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) reported in dogs and also with SCFE in children. Pre-slip, acute, chronic and acute-on-chronic slips were Identified. Based on the cases reviewed, the authors advise internal fixation of stable slipped epiphyses in dogs. This may also be appropriate for unstable separations, although resorption of the femoral neck may preclude stable fixation and necessitate femoral head and neck excision.
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7/21. Femoral neck fracture secondary to in situ pinning of slipped capital femoral epiphysis: a previously unreported complication.

    Two patients developed femoral neck fractures as a complication of in situ pinning for slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) by surgeons who each used a cannulated screw system. Both patients exhibited recurrent hip pain, femoral neck fracture, and coxa vara after asymptomatic postoperative intervals of 2 and 6 months, respectively. The fracture in one patient healed with weight relief alone: the other persisted, requiring a vascularized pedicle bone graft. Bone biopsy at surgery disclosed avascular necrosis (AVN). Based on preliminary studies of heat production during reaming, we speculate that these fractures developed through areas of AVN secondary to thermal injury.
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8/21. Acute-on-chronic bilateral reversed slipped capital femoral epiphysis managed by Imhauser-Weber osteotomy.

    In a rare case of progressive bilateral valgus-slipped capital femoral epiphysis, modified Imhauser-Weber osteotomies were carried out. The osteotomies allowed for significant varus correction and thus included shortening of the neck and distal transfer of the greater trochanter. The planning technique of the complex osteotomy is discussed. At 5-year follow-up the patient had a gratifying result.
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9/21. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis caused by an implant--a case report.

    A nine-year old boy sustained a traumatic fracture of the neck of left femur and was treated by closed reduction and cancellous screw fixation. Fourteen months later the tips of the screws were found to be at the epiphyseal plate and there was evidence of slip of the upper femoral epiphysis. The opposite hip was normal and no other abnormalities were detected. It is postulated that the slip was caused by the implant.
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10/21. slipped capital femoral epiphyses complicating renal osteodystrophy: a report of three cases.

    Three adolescents with bilateral slipped capital femoral epiphyses complicating renal disease are presented. In one case, the severity of the deformities necessitated total hip replacement. Pathological specimens were available for evaluation. In all 3 cases, epiphysiolysis was accompanied by severe subperiosteal reabsorption along the medial aspect of the femoral neck, widening of the cartilaginous growth plate, and coxa vara. The radiographic diagnosis of a minimally displaced femoral epiphysis may precede the clinical symptoms. Early recognition of this complication is important, since the treatment of choice is prophylactic surgical stabilization before disabling deformities occur.
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