Cases reported "Epiretinal Membrane"

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1/71. Abnormal focal macular electroretinograms in eyes with idiopathic epimacular membrane.

    PURPOSE: To study the functional state of the retina beneath an epimacular membrane by means of focal macular electroretinography. methods: Focal macular electroretinograms of 30 consecutive patients (age 25 to 75 years) with unilateral idiopathic epimacular membrane were recorded prospectively. The amplitudes and implicit times of the a and b waves and the oscillatory potentials (O1, O2, O3) recorded from the eye with idiopathic epimacular membrane were compared with those of the normal fellow eye. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant reduction in the amplitude of the a wave (P < .001), the b wave (P < .001), and the oscillatory potentials (O1 O2 O3; P < .001) of the affected eyes. The reduction of the b-wave amplitude was significantly greater than that of the a wave, resulting in a lower b/a wave ratio (P = .003) in the affected eyes. The reduction in the amplitude of the oscillatory potentials was significantly greater than that of the other two components (P < .001). The implicit times were significantly prolonged for the a wave (P < .001), the b wave (P = .004), and 03 (P < .001). There was a significant correlation between relative b-wave amplitude (affected/normal fellow eye) and the visual acuity (r = -0.50, P = .007). These findings were similar to those we reported for eyes with aphakic cystoid macular edema. CONCLUSIONS: The focal macular electroretinograms in eyes with epimacular membrane disclosed abnormalities that were similar to those of eyes with cystoid macular edema. This suggests that the epimacular membrane probably induced damage to the neurons in the inner retinal layers. Dysfunction of these neurons is one possible cause of visual impairment in this disease. ( info)

2/71. Spontaneous separation of an idiopathic macular pucker in a young girl.

    PURPOSE: To report a young girl with spontaneous separation of an idiopathic epiretinal membrane and notable visual recovery. METHOD: Case report. RESULT: A 12-year-old girl had spontaneous improvement in visual acuity of the left eye from 20/100 to 20/40 attributable to spontaneous peeling of an idiopathic epiretinal membrane more than 2 years after it was diagnosed. CONCLUSION: Conservative treatment can be considered in young patients with epiretinal membrane because spontaneous separation may occur and result in good vision. ( info)

3/71. diplopia secondary to aniseikonia associated with macular disease.

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an explanation for diplopia and the inability to fuse in some patients with macular disease. methods: We identified 7 patients from our practices who had binocular diplopia concurrent with epiretinal membranes or vitreomacular traction. A review of the medical records of all patients was performed. In addition to complete ophthalmologic and orthoptic examinations, evaluation of aniseikonia using the Awaya New aniseikonia Tests (Handaya Co Ltd, tokyo, japan) was performed on all patients. RESULTS: All patients were referred for troublesome diplopia. Six of the patients had epiretinal membranes and 1 had vitreomacular traction. All 7 patients had aniseikonia, ranging from 5% to 18%. In 5 of the patients the image in the involved eye was larger, and in the other 2 patients it was smaller than in the fellow eye. All patients had concomitant small-angle strabismus and at least initially did not fuse when the deviation was offset with a prism. Response to optical management and retinal surgery was variable. CONCLUSIONS: aniseikonia caused by separation or compression of photoreceptors can be a contributing factor to the existence of diplopia and the inability to fuse in patients with macular disease. Concomitant small-angle strabismus and the inability to fuse with prisms may lead the clinician to the incorrect diagnosis of central disruption of fusion. Surgical intervention does not necessarily improve the aniseikonia. ( info)

4/71. Histopathological findings in proliferative membrane from a patient with sarcoid uveitis.

    BACKGROUND: Sarcoid uveitis is occasionally accompanied by proliferative changes, such as retinal neovascularization and vitreous hemorrhage. Steroid administration, retinal photocoagulation, and vitrectomy may be indicated in such proliferative cases. CASE: A 19-year-old woman presented with proliferative sarcoid uveitis accompanied by recurrent vitreous hemorrhage. OBSERVATIONS: At the initial examination, bilateral vitreous opacity, retinal exudates, mild vitreous hemorrhage, retinal vasculitis, and neovascularization of the retina and optic disc were observed. Although prednisolone was administered and panretinal photocoagulation was performed several times, recurrent vitreous hemorrhage continued. Since the vitreous hemorrhage was not absorbed, pars plana vitrectomy and lensectomy were performed. After surgery, neovascularization and intraocular inflammation decreased, and the corrected visual acuity in the right eye improved to 20/50. Histopathologic analysis of the proliferative membrane removed during surgery revealed substantial neovascularization and numerous neutrophils in the vessels. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these findings, an inflammatory reaction as well as retinal ischemia were thought to be involved in the proliferative changes in this patient. ( info)

5/71. Macular ring in a patient with Terson's syndrome.

    PURPOSE: To report on a pigmented finding in the macula that is unique to Terson's syndrome, and was previously described only once. METHOD: A 49-year-old man underwent vitrectomy for vitreous hemorrhage due to Terson's syndrome. During surgery the retina was exposed, and a pigmentation was noticed around the macula. Follow-up of the macular finding is presented. RESULTS: At surgery a pigmented "ring" encircling the macula was revealed. Two and six months later, the pigmented line was still noticed, and an epiretinal membrane appeared in the temporal macula. CONCLUSION: Terson's syndrome may be associated with a pigmented "ring" encircling the macula, a finding that may be a result of a detachment of the internal limiting membrane (ILM). The epiretinal membrane that was later noticed, might also be related to the damage to the ILM. ( info)

6/71. vitrectomy update for macular traction in ocular toxocariasis.

    PURPOSE: To study the results of modern vitrectomy in traction and combined traction-rhegmatogenous retinal detachment involving the macula in cases of ocular toxocariasis. methods: This was a cohort study of patients seen in different institutions in the united states. Ten eyes of 10 patients were studied. vitrectomy was performed in all eyes, combined with membrane removal, scleral buckle, fluid-gas exchange, silicone oil, or lensectomy in certain cases. The anatomic and visual results of surgery were reviewed. RESULTS: Ten eyes from 10 patients ranging in age from 2 to 33 years (median, 6 years) were reviewed. Follow-up ranged from 3 months to 8 years (median, 2 years). All eyes achieved macular attachment following surgery; vision improved in 5 (50%) eyes, and was unchanged in 5 (50%). Histologic specimens from six eyes were reviewed, and revealed combinations of fibrous tissue, eosinophils, plasma cells, lymphocytes, and giant cells. One specimen revealed an encysted toxocara canis organism. CONCLUSION: inflammation created in response to Toxocara larvae may lead to traction retinal detachment of the macula. vitreoretinal surgery has a good chance of reattaching the macula and improving vision. ( info)

7/71. Pseudopapilledema in neurofibromatosis type 2.

    PURPOSE: To report a case of neurofibromatosis type 2 with pseudopapilledema secondary to a prepapillary gliotic membrane. METHOD: Case report. Results of an ocular examination and fluorescein angiography of a patient are described. RESULTS: Fundus examination of a 14-year-old male with neurofibromatosis type 2 revealed an irregular elevation of the optic nerve and a perifoveal epiretinal membrane in the right eye. fluorescein angiography demonstrated no autofluorescence nor leakage in the area of the optic nerve. CONCLUSION: The patient has pseudopapilledema secondary to an epiretinal membrane overlying the optic disk of the right eye. The possibility of pseudopapilledema should be considered when evaluating patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 and abnormal optic nerves. ( info)

8/71. mycobacterium chelonae conjunctivitis and scleritis following vitrectomy.

    The atypical, or nontuberculous, mycobacteria are opportunistic pathogens that usually cause infection following accidental trauma or surgery. These organisms are ubiquitous in nature but have been found with increasing frequency in other environments that include medical offices and surgical suites. Management of atypical mycobacterial ocular infections can be difficult because in vitro antibiotic activity does not always correlate with in vivo efficacy and because normal immune defenses against mycobacteria may work too slowly to prevent irreversible damage to infected ocular tissues. This report describes a patient who developed a severe ocular infection due to mycobacterium chelonae after vitrectomy. Despite eradication of the infection, the eye became blind and painful. Arch Ophthalmol. 2000;118:1125-1128 ( info)

9/71. choroidal neovascularization with granulomatous inflammation in ocular histoplasmosis syndrome.

    PURPOSE: To report pathologic examination of an excised choroidal neovascular membrane in a patient with ocular histoplasmosis syndrome that demonstrated granulomatous inflammation. METHOD: Case report. A 50-year-old woman with sudden vision loss in her left eye demonstrated clinical and fluorescein angiographic findings characteristic of choroidal neovascularization secondary to ocular histoplasmosis syndrome. RESULTS: Histopathologic examination of the surgically excised choroidal neovascular membrane disclosed granulomatous inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: This case suggests an important role of mononuclear phagocytic cells as primary mediators of angiogenesis or modifiers of choroidal neovascularization. This association of choroidal neovascularization with granulomatous inflammation did not respond to treatment with systemic corticosteroids. ( info)

10/71. A traumatic macular hole secondary to a high-energy Nd:YAG laser.

    A case is reported of a traumatic macular hole caused by a high-energy Nd:YAG laser. The initial ocular examination revealed an explosive, crater-shaped, full-thickness macular hole surrounded by local edema and detachment. By the 12th day after the injury, the hole had shrunk progressively and was covered by a thin fibrin-like membrane. A thick epiretinal membrane covered the injured area 1 month after the injury. Nine months after the injury, the macular hole closed spontaneously with a partially detached epiretinal membrane. This case demonstrates one of the natural healing processes of a traumatic macular hole. Although the hole finally closed, the patient did not regain his vision because of the severe damage to the photoreceptors, retinal pigment epithelium, and choroid. ( info)
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