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1/100. Systemic granulomatous arteritis associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    A 61-year-old woman initially presented with symptoms and findings reminiscent of infectious mononucleosis, and her illness then took a rapidly fatal course. autopsy revealed widespread granulomatous arteritis, with multinucleated giant cells but without eosinophils and fibrinoid necrosis, affecting small arteries and arterioles and infiltration of haemophagocytic histiocytes into many organs. in situ hybridization with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific oligonucleotide probes showed positive signals in the infiltrating immune cells and epithelial and endothelial cells of the affected organs. EBV-associated haemophagocytic syndrome (EBV-AHS) with systemic granulomatous arteritis was diagnosed. From the immunophenotypes of the infiltrating immune cells, a possible role of CD4 T-cells in the pathogenesis of this haemophagocytic syndrome and granulomatous vasculitis was suggested.
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ranking = 1
keywords = infectious mononucleosis, mononucleosis
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2/100. Interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) deficiency in generalized Epstein-Barr virus infection with interstitial lymphoid and granulomatous pneumonia, focal cerebral lesions, and genital ulcers: remission following IFN-gamma substitution therapy.

    A 26-year-old previously healthy woman developed granulomatous pneumonitis, encephalitis, and genital ulceration during primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. EBV dna was demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction analysis of serum, lung tissue, and genital ulcer specimens. serology verified primary EBV infection. The patient lacked lymphocytes cytotoxic to autologous EBV-transformed B lymphocytes. No spontaneous or in vitro EBV-induced interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) production was evident in peripheral blood. The cells had normal IFN-gamma production when stimulated with staphylococcus aureus exotoxin A. In the bone marrow and peripheral blood, the number of large granular CD56 lymphocytes (natural killer cells) increased 39%-55%, but no CD4 or CD8 cell lymphocytosis was initially found. A partial clinical response was achieved with treatment with acyclovir, corticosteroids, and intravenous gamma-globulin. Because of persistent granulomatous central nervous system and lung involvement, subcutaneous IFN-gamma therapy was started but was discontinued after 3 months because of development of fever, pancytopenia, and hepatitis. This therapy initiated a complete clinical recovery, which occurred parallel to development of EBV-specific cytotoxic CD8 T lymphocytes and normalization of natural killer cell lymphocytosis. These findings provide evidence for an EBV-induced lymphoproliferative disorder due to a T lymphocyte dysfunction associated with a selective lack of IFN-gamma synthesis.
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ranking = 0.00064704329130958
keywords = fever
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3/100. Epstein-Barr virus infection resembling autoimmune hepatitis with lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase anomaly.

    A 73-year-old man had fever, lymphadenopathy, granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, ascites, pleural effusion, liver injury, and an allergic-like skin rash. autoantibodies, such as anti-nuclear antibody, were shown, and there were lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase anomalies and platelet-associated IgG. His liver injury resembled that in autoimmune hepatitis. He was diagnosed with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection associated with autoimmunization because of his clinical course, fluctuation of anti EBV antibodies and positive EBV genome in circulating lymphocytes and serum. This case suggests a close relationship between EBV infection and autoimmunization or autoimmune-like hepatitis.
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ranking = 0.00064704329130958
keywords = fever
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4/100. Hemophagocytic syndrome following an Epstein-Barr virus infection: a case report and literature review.

    Hemophagocytosis is an uncommon disorder characterized by proliferation of histiocytes that actively engulf other hematopoietic cells causing cytopenia. Reactive or secondary hemophagocytosis is very rare in healthy adults in the US. Various infectious, as well as neoplastic and immunologic etiologies of reactive hemophagocytosis have been reported. It is a non-malignant, reactive disorder characterized by hemophagocytosis in the bone marrow and reticuloendothelial system (RES) resulting in pancytopenia, fever, hepatic dysfunction, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). No consensus exists in the literature regarding optimal treatment of virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (VAHS). We report a case of VAHS in a previously healthy immunocompetent male and review the diagnosis and management of this rare disorder.
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ranking = 0.00064704329130958
keywords = fever
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5/100. Fulminant EBV( ) T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder following acute/chronic EBV infection: a distinct clinicopathologic syndrome.

    This study describes the clinicopathologic features of 5 patients who developed a fulminant Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive clonal T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD) after acute EBV infection. One additional patient developed a similar disorder in the setting of long-standing chronic active EBV infection. Detailed immunophenotyping, in situ hybridization for EBV early rna-1 (EBER1) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses for immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain and T-cell receptor (TCR)-gamma gene rearrangements were performed on paraffin-embedded tissue from all patients. In addition, EBV strain typing and detection of the characteristic 30-bp deletion of the latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1) gene were performed by PCR. Controls included 8 cases of uncomplicated infectious mononucleosis (IM). patients included 4 males and 2 females with a median age of 18 years (2-37 years). Three patients were Mexican, 2 were white, and 1 was of Asian descent. All presented with fever, hepatosplenomegaly, and pancytopenia; 5 were previously healthy, but had a clinical history of a recent viral-like upper respiratory illness (1 week to 2 months), and 1 patient had documented chronic active EBV infection for 7 years. Serologic data for EBV were incomplete but titers were either negative or only modestly elevated in 3 cases. In 1 case serology was consistent with severe chronic active EBV infection. In the remaining 2 cases serologic studies were not performed. All patients died within 7 days to 8 months of presentation with T-cell LPD. On histologic examination, the liver and spleen showed prominent sinusoidal and portal lymphoid infiltrates of CD3( ), beta F1( ), EBER1( ) T cells lacking significant cytologic atypia. Two cases were CD4( ), 2 cases were CD8( ), and 2 cases had admixed CD4( ) and CD8( ) cells without clear subset predominance. All were TIA-1( ), CD56(-). Only rare B cells were noted. Marked erythrophagocytosis was present. Molecular analysis revealed identical T-cell clones in 2 or more sites (liver, spleen, lymph node) in 5 cases. All patients carried type A EBV; 4 cases had wild-type EBV-LMP, and 2 showed the 30-bp deletion. This fulminant T-cell LPD after acute/chronic EBV infection is characterized by hepatosplenomegaly, often without significant lymphadenopathy, fever, liver failure, pancytopenia, and erythrophagocytosis indicative of a hemophagocytic syndrome. EBV serology may be misleading, with lack of elevated titers. The presence of an EBER1( ) T-cell infiltrate with scant B cells should alert one to this diagnosis. Although cytologic atypia is minimal, studies for T-cell clonality confirm the diagnosis. (blood. 2000;96:443-451)
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ranking = 1.0012940865826
keywords = infectious mononucleosis, mononucleosis, fever
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6/100. Development of a biologically distinct EBV-related lymphoproliferative disorder following autologous bone marrow transplantation for an EBV-negative post-renal allograft Burkitt's lymphoma.

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a known complication of both solid organ transplantation and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) but is rarely seen following autologous BMT. We report the case of a 45 year-old female who developed Burkitt's lymphoma eight years after a renal allograft. This PTLD was found to have lambda light chain restriction, contained del(8)(q24) and add(14)(q32), and was negative for EBV on immunohistochemical and dna-based PCR analyses. Immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) PCR studies revealed a prominent clonal rearrangement. She responded to intravenous cyclophosphamide and proceeded to high-dose chemoradiotherapy and mafosfamide-purged autologous BMT. Thirty-nine days post-BMT she presented with cough and fever and developed hepatic dysfunction; abnormal lymphoplasmacytoid cells were noted in the peripheral blood. Investigations revealed kappa light chain restriction, an oligoclonal IgH rearrangement, a normal karyotype and PCR studies for EBV were positive, consistent with a clinically and biologically distinct PTLD. She initially improved following discontinuation of immunosuppression, but then deteriorated abruptly and died 58 days post-BMT. It is likely that the two separate episodes of PTLD in this patient, one of which was atypical, arose as a result of both the chronic use of cyclosporine and the impairment of cell-mediated immunity associated with autologous BMT. The sequence of events in this patient should contribute to a better understanding of late-onset, EBV-negative PTLD.
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ranking = 0.00064704329130958
keywords = fever
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7/100. Fatal lymphoproliferative disease as a complication of Evans syndrome.

    A 9-month-old boy had bruising and petechiae. Investigation revealed a Coombs-positive hemolytic anemia and immune-mediated thrombocytopenia. The infant was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and steroids. The infant eventually had recurrent fevers, hepatosplenomegaly, pulmonary nodules, and parenchymal central nervous system (CNS) lesions develop. Results of a lung biopsy revealed a polyclonal lymphoproliferative disease. polymerase chain reaction analysis showed the presence of the Epstein-Barr (EB) viral genome in the lung nodules. The infant died from progressive lung disease 6 months after the initial symptoms of Evans syndrome. Lymphoproliferative disease is known to occur in a variety of settings after immunosuppression, especially in solid organ transplant recipients. We report a case of polyclonal lymphocyte proliferation in a patient with Evans syndrome.
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ranking = 0.00064704329130958
keywords = fever
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8/100. hypersensitivity to mosquito bites is not an allergic disease, but an Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disease.

    Recently, we showed that 5 cases of hypersensitivity to mosquito bites (HMB) concealed the clonal lymphoproliferation of Epstein-Barr viral (EBV) dna-positive natural killer (NK) cells. Although the symptoms of HMB have been supposed to derive from Arthus phenomenon, it has become apparent that this unique disorder has the potential to develop into so-called malignant histiocytosis (MH) or related disorders. Accordingly, the criteria for MH have been changed, and a newer diagnostic name, hemophagocytic syndrome, has been described as being associated with viral infection or leukemia/lymphoma. We previously reported that biopsy specimens taken from skin lesions demonstrated infiltration of lymphocytes bearing the phenotype of NK cells. In this study, we found that skin lesions exhibited infiltration of atypical lymphocytes around the small vessels, resembling angiocentric lymphoma, and that these infiltrating cells were positive for EBER-1 by in situ hybridization. These findings support the concept that HMB is the most important manifestation of a certain type of lymphoproliferative disease that presents with an intense local skin reaction and high fever following mosquito bites, and whose essence is the lymphoproliferation of EBV dna-positive NK cells.
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ranking = 0.00064704329130958
keywords = fever
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9/100. T cell lymphoproliferative disorder following bone marrow transplantation for severe aplastic anemia.

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is uncommonly of T cell origin, especially following BMT. We describe a 13-year-old boy with severe aplastic anemia (SAA) and no evidence of Fanconi's anemia who underwent BMT at 11 years of age using CY 10 mg/kg once daily i.v. on days -5, -4, antilymphocyte globulin (ALG) 30 mg/kg once daily i.v. on days -5 approximately -3 and CsA from day -1 as conditioning. The BMT failed and he received a further peripheral blood stem cell transplant (PBSCT) 240 days after BMT. Conditioning was with CY 50 mg/kg once daily i.v. on days -5 approximately -2, and ALG 15 mg/kg once daily i.v. on days -4 approximately -2. GVHD prophylaxis included CsA and MTX. Engraftment was later confirmed by cytogenetic studies. Desquamation and ulcers of the oral mucosa and mouth angle developed in the 13th month post PBSCT. A buccal mucosa biopsy on day 524 revealed only plasmacytosis. Immunosuppressants were discontinued at that point. Generalized lymphadenopathy, prolonged fever (waxing and waning) and facial swelling developed in the 18th month post PBSCT. A neck lymph node biopsy on day 601 showed T cell lymphoma of diffuse large cell type with monoclonal TCR gamma-chain gene rearrangement. A FISH study showed that the malignant T cells were of recipient origin. EBV in situ hybridization was negative. He did not receive further treatment apart from discontinuation of immunosuppressants. He was followed up in our out-patient clinic and showed good performance 1170 days post PBSCT. We speculate that a different mechanism was operating in the pathogenesis of T cell lymphoma in this case. risk factors include SAA and two transplants, conditioned with CY and ALG, long term use of CsA and treatment with azathioprine.
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ranking = 0.00064704329130958
keywords = fever
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10/100. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder after autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation in a pediatric patient.

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Rare cases of PTLD after autologous BMT have been reported only in adults. This case report is the first to describe PTLD in a pediatric patient after autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation (PSCT). This 2-year-old male with stage IV neuroblastoma underwent autologous PSCT. The post-PSCT course was complicated by fever with hematochezia and a lung mass. On day 94 post PSCT, colonoscopy revealed an ulcer due to a PTLD, monomorphic type, B cell phenotype, associated with Epstein-Barr virus. Fine needle aspiration identified the lung mass as neuroblastoma. PTLD can occur in pediatric autologous PSCT recipients, and may occur more frequently in autologous grafts manipulated by T cell depletion or CD34 cell selection.
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ranking = 0.00064704329130958
keywords = fever
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