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1/81. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disease following HLA identical sibling marrow transplantation for aplastic anaemia in a patient with an EBV seronegative donor.

    BACKGROUND: B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (BLPD*) caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) occurring after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) are usually of donor origin. Treatment such as discontinuation of immunosuppression may be successful in some cases, but infusion of donor T cells results in successful eradication of EBV BLPD in most cases. methods AND RESULTS: We report a case of EBV positive aggressive BLPD after HLA matched sibling BMT for aplastic anaemia. The tumour completely regressed after withdrawal of cyclosporin and donor lymphocyte infusion. However, although the tumor was of donor origin, the donor serum was negative for antibodies to EBV antigens and no EBV-specific cytotoxicity was detected in donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The recipient was seropositive for EBV before BMT. CONCLUSIONS: We speculate that a 'second primary' EBV infection occurred involving donor cells in the recipient during BMT immunosuppression, with subsequent outgrowth of donor-derived BLPD. EBV infection may have been by an endogenous EBV isolate, from external sources, or from third party transfusions.
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2/81. Posttransplantation B lymphoblastic leukemia with Burkitt-like features.

    BACKGROUND: Posttransplantation Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disease (PTLPD) occurs as a spectrum of disease ranging from benign, polyclonal, localized lymphoid hyperplasia to malignant, monoclonal, disseminated lymphoma, sometimes involving the bone marrow. To our knowledge, PTLPD has not been previously reported to present as acute lymphoblastic leukemia. methods: We report the case of a boy who developed PTLPD in the form of acute lymphoblastic leukemia 6 years after cardiac transplantation. He had greater than 90% bone marrow invasion by Epstein-Barr virus-positive B lymphoblasts with Burkitt-like features and a t(8;14) translocation. RESULTS: He was successfully treated with combination chemotherapy but unfortunately died, 6 months after completing treatment, from ischemic heart disease. CONCLUSIONS: B lymphoblastic leukemia may occur as a manifestation of PTLPD and should be included in the classification of these diseases. bone marrow examination should be an essential part of the investigation of patients suspected of having PTLPD.
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3/81. Interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) deficiency in generalized Epstein-Barr virus infection with interstitial lymphoid and granulomatous pneumonia, focal cerebral lesions, and genital ulcers: remission following IFN-gamma substitution therapy.

    A 26-year-old previously healthy woman developed granulomatous pneumonitis, encephalitis, and genital ulceration during primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. EBV dna was demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction analysis of serum, lung tissue, and genital ulcer specimens. serology verified primary EBV infection. The patient lacked lymphocytes cytotoxic to autologous EBV-transformed B lymphocytes. No spontaneous or in vitro EBV-induced interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) production was evident in peripheral blood. The cells had normal IFN-gamma production when stimulated with staphylococcus aureus exotoxin A. In the bone marrow and peripheral blood, the number of large granular CD56 lymphocytes (natural killer cells) increased 39%-55%, but no CD4 or CD8 cell lymphocytosis was initially found. A partial clinical response was achieved with treatment with acyclovir, corticosteroids, and intravenous gamma-globulin. Because of persistent granulomatous central nervous system and lung involvement, subcutaneous IFN-gamma therapy was started but was discontinued after 3 months because of development of fever, pancytopenia, and hepatitis. This therapy initiated a complete clinical recovery, which occurred parallel to development of EBV-specific cytotoxic CD8 T lymphocytes and normalization of natural killer cell lymphocytosis. These findings provide evidence for an EBV-induced lymphoproliferative disorder due to a T lymphocyte dysfunction associated with a selective lack of IFN-gamma synthesis.
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4/81. EBV infection induced transformation of benign T lymphoproliferative state in patient with chronic active EBV infection into malignant lymphoma: implication of EBV infection as additive oncogenic factor in tumorigenesis.

    An 11-year-old girl with chronic EBV (Epstein-Barr virus) infection, who later developed malignant lymphoma in the lung, is reported. She had an increased number of V alpha2, V beta8, CD3, CD4, and HLADR positive activated lymphocytes (20-30% of total lymphocytes) in peripheral blood. One year later, she developed lymphoma in the lung, which was V alpha2, V beta8, CD3, CD4, HLADR and IL2Rbeta positive. At that time, the population in the peripheral blood increased up to 40%, but there was no evidence of lymphoma in the bone marrow. in situ hybridization revealed lymphoma cells were EBER-1 positive but gp350/220 and LMP mRNA negative. The EBV genome was detected in the tumor, but not in the peripheral T cells. Clonal analysis of the lymphoma cells revealed monoclonal rearrangement of the TcRbeta and gamma gene, however, investigation of the terminal repeat of EBV gene did not show the monoclonal pattern. These results indicate that infection of EBV into clonally activated T cells was related with transformation from benign lymphoproliferative disease to malignant lymphoma in this patient.
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5/81. Hemophagocytic syndrome in pregnancy.

    BACKGROUND: Hemophagocytic syndrome is characterized by nonmalignant histiocytes that undergo uncontrolled phagocytosis of normal hematopoietic cells. Clinical severity ranges from complete recovery to rapid deterioration and death. CASE: thrombocytopenia was discovered upon routine initial prenatal evaluation of a 24-year-old, gravida 2, para 1, at 29 weeks' gestation with a history of necrotizing lymphadenitis. Cytopenia and elevated transaminases developed, followed by hyperpyrexia. The patient delivered and her postpartum course was complicated by coagulopathy, multiorgan failure, and death. Bone marrow biopsy confirmed hemophagocytic syndrome. CONCLUSION: early diagnosis of hemophagocytic syndrome during pregnancy might be helped by recognizing symptoms and signs, including a history of necrotizing lymphadenitis, and obtaining a bone marrow biopsy.
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6/81. Use of radiation therapy in posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) after liver transplantation.

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a common and life-threatening complication of immunosuppression used to prevent rejection of solid organ and bone marrow transplants. There is no standardized treatment algorithm, but numerous management strategies are available. We describe a patient who developed a solitary lymphoproliferative lesion in the porta hepatis 9 months after orthotopic liver transplant. Following reduction in immunosuppression with no response, she was treated with involved field radiotherapy utilizing CT-based treatment planning. A partial radiographic response was obtained, and she has not developed disease in the engrafted liver or systemically. Based on the present case report, involved field radiotherapy seems to be a reasonable treatment option for patients with localized PTLD. Int. J. Cancer (Radiat. Oncol. Invest.) 90:104-109, 2000.
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7/81. Hemophagocytic syndrome following an Epstein-Barr virus infection: a case report and literature review.

    Hemophagocytosis is an uncommon disorder characterized by proliferation of histiocytes that actively engulf other hematopoietic cells causing cytopenia. Reactive or secondary hemophagocytosis is very rare in healthy adults in the US. Various infectious, as well as neoplastic and immunologic etiologies of reactive hemophagocytosis have been reported. It is a non-malignant, reactive disorder characterized by hemophagocytosis in the bone marrow and reticuloendothelial system (RES) resulting in pancytopenia, fever, hepatic dysfunction, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). No consensus exists in the literature regarding optimal treatment of virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (VAHS). We report a case of VAHS in a previously healthy immunocompetent male and review the diagnosis and management of this rare disorder.
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8/81. Posttransplant Epstein-Barr virus-associated myogenic tumors involving bone.

    BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated myogenic tumors in immunocompromised patients were recently recognized, but their biologic behavior remains only partially understood. Although observations so far have permitted the recognition of similarities between posttransplant myogenic tumors and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD), the number of reports are still few, and new experiences continue to be informative. methods: The authors describe what they believe is the first example of posttransplant EBV-associated myogenic tumor involving bone, which is also remarkable for its multicentric symmetric limb distribution. immunohistochemistry of tumor cells for myogenic antigens (desmin and smooth muscle actin), EBV antigens (latency proteins latent membrane protein-1 [LMP-1], Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-2 [EBNA-2], and ZEBRA), p53, and bcl-2 was examined by standard avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex methods. Molecular techniques investigated in situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded messenger RNAs (EBERs) and single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis for p53 mutation. RESULTS: Although the biologic behavior of this tumor was uncertain, the reduction of immunosuppression arrested tumor growth for 5 years, at the expense of some loss in renal function. The occurrence of episodes of acute cellular rejection required pulse therapy, resulting in the appearance of new lesions in both liver and lungs. Despite these complications, a balance between control of this multicentric tumor growth and allograft survival has been maintained for 8 years. CONCLUSIONS: To the authors' knowledge, this example of posttransplant myogenic tumor is the first described in the bone. It shows partial response to immunomodulation with persistent tumor, with prolonged survival of the renal allograft.
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9/81. Early intervention in post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders based on Epstein-Barr viral load.

    Using a real-time quantitative PCR assay, we identified two patients with EBV-related lymphoproliferative disorders at a very early stage. Both had received an unmanipulated bone marrow transplant with anti-thymocyte globulin for conditioning. To estimate virus-specific immunity, the frequencies of EBV-specific CD8 T cells were measured using an enzyme-linked immunospot assay. The frequencies of EBV-specific CD8 T cells of the two were 3.2 and 7.7%, respectively, which had possibly expanded in vivo. After withdrawing the immunosuppressive agents or administering donor lymphocytes transfusion, their symptoms regressed in parallel with the viral load.
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10/81. Longitudinal dynamics of Epstein-Barr virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes during posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder.

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD) is a serious complication after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Dynamics of EBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), which are important in controlling EBV during the LPD, have not been fully elucidated. A patient with Wiskot-Aldrich's syndrome was diagnosed as suffering from LPD on day 47 after BMT. fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis for interferon-gamma production revealed that >70% of the patient's CD8( ) T cells were EBV specific. The patient's lymphocytes were directly cytotoxic to donor-derived EBV-positive lymphoblastoid cells, which was blocked by an anti-class I antibody. EBV-specific CD8( ) T cell counts declined in parallel with EBV genome load, and full recovery of LPD was obtained with relaxation of immunosuppressive drugs. The results illustrate longitudinal dynamics of EBV-specific CTL during the posttransplant LPD; they also illustrate the advantages of using FACS analysis for EBV-specific CTL to make decisions about treatment.
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