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1/460. Subacute painful lumbosacral polyradiculoneuropathy in immunocompromised patients.

    The syndrome of inflammatory subacute lumbosacral polyradiculoneuropathy (SLP) has been reported in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients in association with cytomegalovirus infection and is only partially amenable to anti-viral therapy. We report three cases of relatively benign inflammatory painful SLP in two non-AIDS, immunosuppressed patients and one who hiv-seroconversed at the time of clinical presentation. SLP developed: (1) in association with hiv seroconversion; (2) during ECHO virus infection in a patient with common variable immune deficiency; and (3) after a severe systemic infection that induced transient immunosuppression due to Epstein-Barr virus reactivation. This report expands the spectrum of viruses associated with acute and subacute lumbosacral polyradiculoneuropathy and may shed light on its possible pathogenesis.
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2/460. Systemic granulomatous arteritis associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    A 61-year-old woman initially presented with symptoms and findings reminiscent of infectious mononucleosis, and her illness then took a rapidly fatal course. autopsy revealed widespread granulomatous arteritis, with multinucleated giant cells but without eosinophils and fibrinoid necrosis, affecting small arteries and arterioles and infiltration of haemophagocytic histiocytes into many organs. in situ hybridization with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific oligonucleotide probes showed positive signals in the infiltrating immune cells and epithelial and endothelial cells of the affected organs. EBV-associated haemophagocytic syndrome (EBV-AHS) with systemic granulomatous arteritis was diagnosed. From the immunophenotypes of the infiltrating immune cells, a possible role of CD4 T-cells in the pathogenesis of this haemophagocytic syndrome and granulomatous vasculitis was suggested.
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3/460. Characterization of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected natural killer (NK) cell proliferation in patients with severe mosquito allergy; establishment of an IL-2-dependent NK-like cell line.

    The clinical evidence of a relationship between severe hypersensitivity to mosquito bite (HMB) and clonal expansion of EBV-infected NK cells has been accumulated. In order to clarify the mechanism of EBV-induced NK cell proliferation and its relationship with high incidence of leukaemias or lymphomas in HMB patients, we studied clonally expanded NK cells from three HMB patients and succeeded in establishing an EBV-infected NK-like cell line designated KAI3. immunoblotting and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses revealed that KAI3 cells as well as infected NK cells exhibited an EBV latent infection type II, where EBV gene expression was limited to EBNA 1 and LMP1. As KAI3 was established by culture with IL-2, IL-2 responsiveness of peripheral blood NK cells from patients was examined. The results represented markedly augmented IL-2-induced IL-2R alpha expression in NK cells. This characteristic property may contribute to the persistent expansion of infected NK cells. However, KAI3 cells as well as the NK cells from patients were not protected from apoptosis induced by either an anti-Fas antibody or NK-sensitive k562 cells. Preserved sensitivity to apoptosis might explain the relatively regulated NK cell numbers in the peripheral blood of the patients. To our knowledge, KAI3 is the first reported NK-like cell line established from patients of severe chronic active EBV infection (SCAEBV) before the onset of leukaemias or lymphomas. KAI3 cells will contribute to the study of EBV persistency in the NK cell environment and its relationship with high incidence of leukaemias or lymphomas in HMB patients.
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4/460. poliomyelitis-like syndrome associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    A 20-month-old male presented with an acute clinical syndrome resembling poliomyelitis, characterized by a flaccid monoplegia, areflexia of the involved limb, and preserved sensation. Electrophysiologic studies supported a neuronopathic localization involving the anterior horn cells. Although laboratory evidence for a poliovirus infection was absent, serologic and polymerase chain reaction studies documented an active central nervous system infection with Epstein-Barr virus, indicating that a poliomyelitis-like syndrome may be produced by infectious agents other than enteroviruses.
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5/460. Epstein-Barr virus-associated B cell lymphoproliferative disease after non-myeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    There is a growing interest in the evaluation of non-myeloablative conditioning therapy for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Such regimens are expected to produce less toxicity while allowing both engraftment and a graft-versus-disease effect from the large number of donor-derived immunocompetent T lymphocytes given with the stem cells. Heavy immunosuppression used in recipients may have unexpected consequences. We describe the occurrence of a fatal Epstein-Barr virus-associated B cell lymphoproliferative disease (BLPD) early after such a non-myeloablated allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplant in a heavily pretreated patient.
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6/460. Nasal-type T/natural killer cell angiocentric lymphoma, Epstein-Barr virus-associated, and showing clonal T-cell receptor gamma gene rearrangement.

    Nasal-type T/natural killer (NK) cell lymphoma, which often shows an angiocentric growth pattern, is a distinct clinicopathological entity highly associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). This tumour has a characteristic immunophenotype, whereas the cytological spectrum is broad. It is known that a clonal T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement is not found in this tumour. However, it is still unresolved as to whether the finding of a clonal TCR gene rearrangement excludes the diagnosis of nasal-type T/NK cell lymphoma. We describe a case of nasal-type T/NK cell angiocentric lymphoma, EBV-associated, and showing clonal TCR gamma gene rearrangement. The patient died of sepsis 5 months after diagnosis in spite of aggressive chemotherapy.
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7/460. The association of latent Epstein-Barr virus infection with hydroa vacciniforme.

    patients with hydroa vacciniforme (HV)-like eruptions and malignant potential have been reported from Asia and mexico, and those patients frequently had an associated latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. In order to elucidate the association of latent EBV infection with HV, we studied six children with typical manifestations of HV by detection of EBV genes and EBV-related RNAs in biopsy specimens from cutaneous lesions. Cutaneous lesions of all six children with typical HV contained EBV-encoded small nuclear rna (EBER) cells in 3-10% of the dermal infiltrates, whereas no Bam HI-H, l-fragment (BHLF) mRNA, or transcripts encoding EA-D antigen, were detected. No EBER cells were detected in other inflammatory or benign lymphoproliferative skin disorders tested. polymerase chain reaction amplification confirmed the presence of EBV dna sequences in five of six biopsy specimens from the patients. Latent EBV infection is associated with the development of cutaneous lesions of HV.
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8/460. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disease following HLA identical sibling marrow transplantation for aplastic anaemia in a patient with an EBV seronegative donor.

    BACKGROUND: B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (BLPD*) caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) occurring after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) are usually of donor origin. Treatment such as discontinuation of immunosuppression may be successful in some cases, but infusion of donor T cells results in successful eradication of EBV BLPD in most cases. methods AND RESULTS: We report a case of EBV positive aggressive BLPD after HLA matched sibling BMT for aplastic anaemia. The tumour completely regressed after withdrawal of cyclosporin and donor lymphocyte infusion. However, although the tumor was of donor origin, the donor serum was negative for antibodies to EBV antigens and no EBV-specific cytotoxicity was detected in donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The recipient was seropositive for EBV before BMT. CONCLUSIONS: We speculate that a 'second primary' EBV infection occurred involving donor cells in the recipient during BMT immunosuppression, with subsequent outgrowth of donor-derived BLPD. EBV infection may have been by an endogenous EBV isolate, from external sources, or from third party transfusions.
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9/460. Posttransplantation B lymphoblastic leukemia with Burkitt-like features.

    BACKGROUND: Posttransplantation Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disease (PTLPD) occurs as a spectrum of disease ranging from benign, polyclonal, localized lymphoid hyperplasia to malignant, monoclonal, disseminated lymphoma, sometimes involving the bone marrow. To our knowledge, PTLPD has not been previously reported to present as acute lymphoblastic leukemia. methods: We report the case of a boy who developed PTLPD in the form of acute lymphoblastic leukemia 6 years after cardiac transplantation. He had greater than 90% bone marrow invasion by Epstein-Barr virus-positive B lymphoblasts with Burkitt-like features and a t(8;14) translocation. RESULTS: He was successfully treated with combination chemotherapy but unfortunately died, 6 months after completing treatment, from ischemic heart disease. CONCLUSIONS: B lymphoblastic leukemia may occur as a manifestation of PTLPD and should be included in the classification of these diseases. bone marrow examination should be an essential part of the investigation of patients suspected of having PTLPD.
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10/460. Palatal lymphoepitheliomas and a review of head and neck lymphoepitheliomas.

    AIM: Lymphoepithelioma is principally a tumour of the nasopharynx with only sporadic cases arising elsewhere in the head and neck. We describe the clinical and imaging features of a group of rare lymphoepitheliomas related to the palate. patients AND methods: Four patients with lymphoepithelioma of the palate are described. In each case we retrospectively reviewed the clinical records, laboratory results, and imaging which consisted of computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound in all four cases and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in two patients. RESULTS: All four patients were ethnic Chinese (non-smokers, non-drinkers). All cases were Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) related. Tumour was related to the palate in two cases and extended into the nasal cavity in one patient. The fourth patient had a tumour in the floor of the nasal cavity with invasion of the palate on biopsy but not imaging. Cervical lymphadenopathy was seen in two cases, and the nasopharynx was normal in all the four patients. CONCLUSION: Lymphoepitheliomas occur in the region of the palate, where they are also EBV related in southern Chinese. Compared with the keratinizing squamous cell carcinomas, patients with lymphoepitheliomas have a better prognosis and these tumours are not tobacco or alcohol related. They should not be misdiagnosed as metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), particularly since the nasopharynx is invariably normal on imaging and adequate nasopharyngeal biopsy is negative for malignancy.
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