Cases reported "Erythema Multiforme"

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1/16. Tropical-wood-induced bullous erythema multiforme.

    We report a case of bullous erythema multiforme caused by an exotic wood, pao ferro (Machaerium scleroxylon). A 25-year-old female, a luthier (guitar maker) who often handles a variety of woods, developed bullous erythema multiforme. A patch test confirmed a positive reaction to one of the exotic woods, pao ferro. A subsequent accidental short contact with pao ferro 5 months following the first incidence induced a similar exudative erythema. Exotic woods such as pao ferro should be added to the list of contact allergens that can induce bullous erythema multiforme. copyright (R) 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel
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2/16. Allergic contact dermatitis to tea tree oil with erythema multiforme-like id reaction.

    The commercial production of tea tree oil, extracted from melaleuca alternifolia Cheel, has considerably increased over the past 15 years in response to a strong demand for natural remedies and aromatic substances. The number of case reports that describe allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to this essential oil is also on the rise. We report an additional case of ACD to tea tree oil that presented with an extensive erythema multiforme-like reaction. A skin biopsy was performed from a targetlike lesion distant from the site of the initial dermatitis. The patient was treated with systemic and topical corticosteroids. Five months later, he was patch tested to the North American standard series, to his own tea tree oil, to a fresh batch of tea tree oil, and to some related allergens. The skin biopsy showed a spongiotic dermatitis without histological features of erythema multiforme. Patch testing elicited a 3 reaction to old, oxidized tea tree oil, a 2 reaction to fresh tea tree oil, a 2 reaction to colophony, a 1 reaction to abitol, and a 1 reaction to balsam of peru. We believe this is the first report of erythema multiforme-like reaction secondary to ACD from tea tree oil. Other interesting features are the stronger reaction to oxidized than to fresh tea tree oil, and concomitant reactivity to colophony, abitol, and balsam of peru.
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3/16. erythema multiforme due to contact with weeds: a recurrence after patch testing.

    erythema multiforme (EM) as a complication of patch testing (PT) is rare. A 52-year-old woman with a 13-year history of episodes of EM, after contact with weeds during home gardening, had had no recent history of herpes simplex, other infection, drug ingestion or vaccination. On examination, EM lesions were distributed on the exposed skin. 5 weeks after complete resolution, PT and photopatch testing (PPT) were done with fresh plants she brought in. She was PT with a standard series and the Hermal-Trolab plants, woods, tars, balsams and flavors series. Intradermal testing, with a 3 reaction to mixed weed pollens, was done 3 weeks later. Specific IgE to weed pollens class 1 (CAP-Pharmacia) was detected. Eczematous PT reactions were obtained with fresh leaves: common chickweed (stellaria media caryophyllaceae), dandelion (taraxacum officinale Compositae), field-milk thistle (sonchus arvensis Compositae) and white clover (trifolium repens Leguminosae). Photoaggravation was seen to common chickweed and dandelion. Positive PT was also seen with alantolactone. By the 4-day reading, a typical EM had commenced, coming up to quite the same extent as seen on admission. There was no photosensitivity (UV skin tester, K. Waldmann). In the essential oil obtained from common chickweed, thin layer chromatography (TLC) revealed the well-known contact allergens borneol, menthol, linalool, 1,8-cineole, and other terpenes such as epoxy-dehydro-caryophyllene, monoterpene alcohol-ester and caryophyllene. Up to now, no data on essential oil in stellaria media (common chickweed) have been reported. It can be concluded that EM developed due to contact with weeds, and recurred after patch testing. Neither blistering nor eczematous lesions have been seen on her skin, making this case very unusual. As far as the world literature is concerned, this is only the 4th report of EM developing in association with patch testing.
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4/16. erythema multiforme reaction to patch testing.

    A young woman developed erythema multiforme in association with multiple patch test reactions. Sequential patch testing revealed 2 true positive reactions (colophony and fragrance mix), and was not associated with flare of erythema-multiforme-type lesions. The development of erythema multiforme should be included in the list of possible adverse reactions to patch testing, albeit a rare occurrence.
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5/16. 1,2-Ethanedithiol-induced erythema multiforme-like contact dermatitis.

    Contact dermatitis simulating erythema multiforme can be caused by many allergens. The chemical agent 1,2-ethanedithiol, which serves as a protective group in chemical synthesis, has hitherto only been implicated as an irritant. We report on a 22-year-old female chemistry student who developed widespread erythema multiforme-like lesions after local contact with 1,2-ethanedithiol. Many target lesions were observed bilaterally on her hands, forearms, arms, and on her forehead. One such lesion was histologically compatible with erythema multiforme. The patient had a positive patch test to 1,2-ethanedithiol, whereas none of 30 healthy subjects showed a positive reaction. However, eight of the 30 controls (26.7%) developed irritant reactions to 1,2-ethanedithiol. Cautious handling of the compound is a prudent precaution.
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6/16. Cutaneous reactions due to diltiazem and cross reactivity with other calcium channel blockers.

    BACKGROUND: The spectrum of cutaneous eruptions in association with calcium channel blockers is extensive, varying from exanthemas to severe adverse events. Reactions due to diltiazem occur more frequently than with other calcium channel blockers. Patch testing has been used as confirmatory testing in patients with extensive cutaneous reactions. Cross-reactivity among these drugs have not been established. MATERIAL: We present 3 patients: 1) A 54-year-old man developed a generalized erythema-multiforme-like reaction followed by erythrodermia and exfoliative dermatitis 6-7 days after starting on diltiazem. The drug was stopped and remission was obtained with emollients and systemic corticosteroids and antihistamines within 12 days. 2) A 80-year-old woman experienced a pruritic exanthematous eruption on her trunk which evolved to generalized erythrodermia and superficial desquamation. This reaction appeared 10 days after taking diltiazem, and gradually improved in 10-12 days after discontinuation of this drug. 3) A 79-year-old man presented with erythema and pruritus initially on the back, and then affecting thorax, extremities and face. He had started treatment with diltiazem three days before. diltiazem was stopped and steroid and antihistamine therapy was given. His skin condition improved, but 3 days later the patient received verapamil with worsening of previous situation. He recovered within 7 days. methods AND RESULTS: Two to six months after the reaction, we carried out epicutaneous tests with calcium channel blockers from different groups. diltiazem proved positive (at 48 and 96 hours) in the three patients; nifedipine was also positive in patient 2, and verapamil in patient 3. Controlled administration of verapamil was well tolerated in patient 2 after the reaction, and the patient 1 has taken nifedipine without problems. CONCLUSIONS: 1) We report 3 cases of cutaneous reactions due to diltiazem. 2) Epicutaneous tests have been useful for diagnosis. 3) As one of patients had positive patch tests to diltiazem and nifedipine, and other one with diltiazem and verapamil, more studies are needed to demonstrate cross reactions among calcium channel blockers.
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7/16. erythema multiforme to amoxicillin with concurrent infection by Epstein-Barr virus.

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of rashes following the intake of aminopenicillins during an acute episode of infectious mononucleosis is high, but severe cutaneous reactions as erythema multiforme or stevens-johnson syndrome are rare manifestations in childhood. MATERIAL AND methods: We report the case of a 7 year old girl that developed a generalized purpuric rash with target shaped areas, 9 days after starting treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. Laboratory investigation revealed a significant increase of Epstein Barr virus (EBV) specific IgM antibody. After skin biopse she was diagnosed as erythema multiforme syndrome. Prick, intradermal and patch tests were performed with penicilloylpolylysine, minor determinant mixture, benzylpenicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, cefazoline and cefotaxime, the 24 hours reading was positive for aminopenicillins. patch tests were also positive only for aminopenicillins, other betalactams were negative. CONCLUSIONS: The interaction between an infectious agent (EBV) and amoxicillin could precipitate the severe skin reaction. Patch test and delayed intradermal reading with amoxicilllin were an useful tool for the diagnosis of the etiological agent in this reaction. The negative response to other beta-lactams, suggests that the aminobenzyl group of the side chain of amoxicillin plays a predominant role in this reaction.
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8/16. Severe allergic keratoconjunctivitis and erythema multiforme after a routine eye examination: discerning the cause.

    Acute allergic dermatitis of the eyelids with keratoconjunctivitis is associated with a specific triggering factor. Therapy for the acute inflammation can complicate the search for such a factor if the process worsens. We report a case of acute contact dermatitis and keratoconjunctivitis after a routine eye examination to demonstrate the difficulty in evaluating such patients and the role of skin patch testing in determining the cause.
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9/16. erythema multiforme associated with contact dermatitis.

    A garment worker developed erythema multiforme concurrently with allergic contact dermatitis of the hands. Patch testing revealed sensitivity to nickel (which was present in her scissors) and to paraphenylenediamine (a commercial dye). During the course of the patch-test evaluation, both the hand dermatitis and the erythema multiforme became exacerbated. Later, patch testing to only nickel sulfate resulted in the development of erythema multiforme on the face and hands. The allergic pathogenesis, involving the absorption of an allergen through the skin and resulting in a type III allergic reaction from nickel, is discussed.
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10/16. mephenesin contact dermatitis with erythema multiforme features.

    5 patients, all using a mephenesin -containing ointment, with an acute contact dermatitis also presented an id-like spread with erythema multiforme features. In 4 patients, patch tests were performed and since mephenesin was the common allergen in each of these cases, we may assume that this is also the cause of the erythema multiforme-like lesions.
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