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1/29. Staged operative treatment in a septic patient with an infected, unstable pelvis, and a missed bladder rupture.

    This case demonstrates once again the potential and serious complications of pelvic fractures, especially when associated urogenital injuries are missed. Missing the bladder rupture proved almost fatal to our patient. Second, it was confirmed that in very unstable pelvic fractures, external fixation alone does not provide enough stability. Local stability is the cornerstone in the treatment of (bone) infection, and in these cases, maximal stability is only obtainable with internal fixation. The advantages of metal implants in infected areas outweigh the disadvantages by far. For the bladder-rupture, we chose a two-stage approach. First, we performed a urinary diversion, to avoid surgical closure of the infiltrated bladder wall. All cavities, including the open bladder, were packed with omentum to fill the dead space with highly vital tissue to offer stout resistance to infection. Two years later, with the patient in excellent physical condition, urinary undiversion was carried out. Ultimately physical and social recovery was complete.
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keywords = bone
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2/29. Constrictive pericarditis post allogeneic bone marrow transplant for philadelphia-positive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    We describe two cases of severe constrictive pericarditis arising after allogeneic BMT conditioning involving total body irradiation and melphalan to treat philadelphia-chromosome positive ALL. Both patients required pericardectomy, resulting in marked improvement in ventricular filling. However, a degree of right-sided cardiac failure persisted in both patients secondary to restrictive cardiomyopathy. Constrictive pericarditis has not been previously described after BMT, but has been observed following thoracic radiotherapy for malignancy, usually involving a substantially higher radiation dose. Pericardial constriction and restrictive cardiomyopathy should be considered as causes of breathlessness and/or oedema occurring late after BMT. bone marrow transplantation (2000) 25, 571-573.
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ranking = 4
keywords = bone
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3/29. Infected cephalohematoma associated with sepsis and skull osteomyelitis: report of one case.

    osteomyelitis is rarely complicated by an infected cephalohematoma. We report a case of an infected cephalohematoma associated with escherichia coli sepsis and osteomyelitis of the skull. This 37-day-old boy had E. coli sepsis, which had a poor response to antibiotic treatment. An infected cephalohematoma was found when he was 43 days old. Cranial computed tomography (CT) scanning showed cephalohematoma with abscess formation and underlying bony destruction over the left parietal region. Antibiotics alone could not eradicate the infection. Extensive incision, drainage, and debridement of the necrotic bone resulted in prompt improvement. Three weeks of ceftizoxime administered intravenously, followed by 3 weeks of cefixime given orally completed the treatment course.
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keywords = bone
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4/29. Xanthogranulomatous salpingitis and oophoritis: a case report and review of the literature.

    A case of xanthogranulomatous salpingitis and oophoritis in a 47-year-old woman is presented. Xanthogranulomatous inflammation is an uncommon form of chronic inflammation that is destructive to affected organs; it is characterized by the presence of lipid-filled macrophages with admixed lymphocytes, plasma cells, and neutrophils. Only a few cases of xanthogranulomatous salpingitis and oophoritis have been reported to date. The case presented here is associated with escherichia coli infection, endometriosis, and an intrauterine device.
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ranking = 359.45829060838
keywords = macrophage
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5/29. psoas abscess: the spine as a primary source of infection.

    STUDY DESIGN: Case report, literature review, discussion. OBJECTIVES: To emphasize the role of the spine as primary source of infection for psoas abscess. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: spine-associated psoas abscesses increase with more frequent invasive procedures of the spine and recurring tuberculosis in industrialized countries. Diagnosis is often delayed by misinterpretation as arthritis, joint infection, or urologic or abdominal disorders. methods: We present six cases of psoas abscesses associated with spinal infections that were treated in our hospital from January to December 2001. Diagnostic and treatment concepts are discussed. RESULTS: Our data emphasize the importance of the spine as primary source of infection and suggest an increase in the incidence of secondary psoas abscess. Treatment includes open surgical drainage and antibiotic therapy. In patients with high operative risk and uniloculated abscess, a CT-guided percutaneous abscess drainage can be sufficient. It is essential to combine abscess drainage with causative treatment of the primary infectious focus. Related to the spine, this includes treatment of spondylodiscitis or implant infection after spinal surgery. Usually, several operations are necessary to eradicate bone and soft-tissue infection and restore spinal stability. Continuous antibiotic therapy over a period of 2-3 weeks after normalization of infectious parameters is recommended. CONCLUSION: The spine as primary source of infection for secondary psoas abscess should always be included in differential diagnosis. Because the prognosis of psoas abscess can be improved by early diagnosis and prompt onset of therapy, it needs to be considered in patients with infection and back or hip pain or history of spinal surgery.
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keywords = bone
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6/29. ciprofloxacin for treatment of malakoplakia.

    The tumour-like lesions of the rare disease malakoplakia, which consist of macrophages containing undigested coliform bacteria, are often misdiagnosed as a carcinoma. Although an infectious aetiology is likely, no antimicrobial therapy has been successful in the long-term. Since ciprofloxacin penetrates well into macrophages, this drug was given to two patients with advanced malakoplakia (500 mg twice daily). After long-term treatment all granulomatous lesions disappeared. Thus, malakoplakia can be cured by antibiotic treatment.
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ranking = 718.91658121677
keywords = macrophage
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7/29. Management of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis with spinal cord compression in the elderly.

    Five elderly and debilitated patients presented with compressive myelopathy due to pyogenic spondylitis. All had undergone surgery which consisted of eradication of the infected tissue via an anterior approach followed by primary bone graft. Supplementary antibiotic treatment was determined by intraoperative bacteriological culture. This aggressive approach, disregarding the patients' advanced age and poor general medical state, resulted in total resolution of the neurological deficit and the patients' return to their preoperative everyday activity.
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ranking = 1
keywords = bone
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8/29. Xanthogranulomatous funiculitis and orchiepididymitis: report of 2 cases with immunohistochemical study and literature review.

    Two patients with xanthogranulomatous inflammation are described, one with involvement of the spermatic cord and the other with 1 testicle and epididymis affected. To our knowledge, only 12 cases of xanthogranulomatous orchiepididymitis have been reported previously, one of which also presented a xanthogranulomatous funiculitis. Clinically, our patients presented with spermatic cord enlargement (case 1) and chronic orchitis that did not respond to treatment with antibiotics (case 2). Histopathologically, both cases showed extensive xanthogranulomatous inflammation with numerous foamy macrophages that were associated with colonies of microorganisms suggestive of actinomyces in case 1. Additionally, escherichia coli was cultured from the surgical specimen of case 2. The possible underlying pathology may be diabetes in case 1 and phlebitis associated with chronic orchitis in case 2. Differential diagnoses with other lesions that are rich in macrophages, such as malakoplakia, and those testicular neoplasms without serologic tumor markers are discussed.
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ranking = 718.91658121677
keywords = macrophage
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9/29. Prediagnostic malakoplakia presenting as a chronic inflammatory mass in the soft tissues of the neck.

    Malakoplakia presenting in the head and neck is very rare. We present a case of an inflammatory mass in the neck, clinically mimicking actinomycosis in a 67-year-old man. Repeated culture of E. coli and histological and electron microscopic examination of biopsy material showed an infiltration of granular macrophages and intracellular gram negative bacilli, but no classical Michaelis-Gutmann bodies. The clinical and pathological findings and criteria for the diagnosis of malakoplakia are discussed.
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ranking = 359.45829060838
keywords = macrophage
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10/29. Rapid manifestation of cervical vertebral osteomyelitis.

    Within 10 days after cystoscopy causing urosepsis this patient developed persistant neckpain as initial symptom of vertebral osteomyelitis. E. coli was isolated from urine, blood cultures and later from bone biopsy. Antibiotic treatment did not stop the progress of the disease. A transverse spinal cord syndrome occurred due to a pathological fracture of C5 and C6 and operative decompression was necessary. The rapid onset of osteomyelitis was impressive. For effective treatment of bacterial osteomyelitis a bone biopsy is sometimes unavoidable and indicated.
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ranking = 2
keywords = bone
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